Mozambique – country on the southeast coast of Africa
Mozambique extends along the Southeast African coast to the Indian Ocean. In the 9th and 10th centuries there were numerous coastal trading towns in which Arab merchants also settled. The trade in gold, ivory and slaves reached as far as India and China. The huge Monomotapa empire developed, which reached its heyday in the 13th to 15th centuries and lasted until the 18th century.
The first European in Mozambique was Vasco da Gama, who landed there in 1498. The Portuguese conquered the country in the 16th century, and the Portuguese colony of Mozambique was founded in 1752. In 1975 Mozambique became independent. The national liberation organization FRELIMO, which played a key role in the war of independence, ruled the country until 1989 as a unified socialist party. There were close relationships with the Eastern Bloc states, for example over 40,000 Mozambicans studied in the GDR during this period.
|Name of the country||Republic of Mozambique|
|Form of government||Presidential Republic in the Commonweal|
|Geographical location||Southeast Africa|
|National anthem||Patria Amada (Beloved Homeland)|
|Population||approx. 30 million (Credit: Countryaah: Mozambique Population)|
|Ethnicities||approx. 98% members of the Bantu peoples|
|Religions||Traditional African religions, Christianity, Islam|
|Languages||Portuguese (official language), Bantu languages|
|Highest mountain||Monte Binga with a height of 2,436 m|
|Longest river||Zambezi with a length of about 2,660 km|
|Largest lake||Lake Malawi with an area of 29,604 km²|
|International license plate||MOC|
|National currency||1 Mozambique Metical = 100 Centavos|
|Time difference to CET||+ 1h|
|International phone code||00258|
|Mains voltage, frequency||220 volts and 50 hertz|
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)||.mz|
Until the 19th century
The area was first settled around 6,000 BC at the latest by paleolithic groups of hunters and gatherers who, over the centuries, developed a kind of semi-nomadism with the beginning of agriculture. Around 200 the Bantu peoples immigrated from Central Africa and displaced the short indigenous people. They practiced agriculture and animal husbandry and used the first techniques of iron processing. In the 9th and 10th centuries, a coastal trade network with several port cities was established on the Indian Ocean, where Arab merchants settled. The trade in gold, ivory and slaves reached as far as India and China. The huge Monomotapa empire developed, which reached its heyday in the 13th to 15th centuries and lasted until the 18th century.
According to Abbreviationfinder website, in 1498 Vasco da Gama landed on the coast of what is now Mozambique. In the 16th century the region was conquered by the Portuguese who founded the colony of Mozambique in 1752.
In the 20th century
In 1962 Eduardo Mondlane founded the national liberation organization FRELIMO. In 1964, the country’s armed liberation struggle began. Mozambique gained independence on June 25, 1975. Samora Machel became the first president of the People’s Republic; the FRELIMO developed into a unity party. In 1976 the 16 year long civil war began between FRELIMO and the RENAMO rebel movement, which was supported by South Africa and what was then Rhodesia. In 1979, Mozambique began extensive economic cooperation with the GDR.
After Machel’s accidental death, Joaquim Chissano took over the presidency in 1986. In 1989 socialism was officially abolished in Mozambique. In 1990 FRELIMO and RENAMO began peace negotiations in Rome and a new democratic constitution came into force. In 1994 the first democratic elections were held in Mozambique under the supervision of the UN. Chissano became president and a multi-party government was formed. Mozambique has been a member of the Commonwealth since 1995 as the only formerly non-British colony. Chissano was re-elected in 1999, RENAMO failed at the 5% hurdle and accused the government of electoral fraud. In the spring of 2000, the flood of the century flooded large parts of the south of the country and claimed numerous lives. In addition to the consequences of the civil war, dependence on South Africa and a persistent drought hampered the country’s development. In 2003 the FRELIMO candidate Guebuza won the third presidential election.
Filipe Jacinto Nyusi (born 1959) was Minister of Defense from 2008 to 2014 and was elected fourth President of the country on October 15, 2014. He has also been the chairman of FRELIMO since March 29, 2015.
AIDS is also a major problem in Mozambique. In 2015, around 11% of the population were infected.