European education systems in modern times have developed primarily on the basis of pedagogical ideas based on the human vision of the Enlightenment and on the need to qualify the workforce. In addition, the state power everywhere has tried through the school’s business to create loyal citizens.
All European countries today give high priority to the education system on both ideological and economic grounds. In the 1950’s and 1960’s, public expenditure on education increased in both Eastern and Western Europe by more than 10% per year, i.e. with more than twice as much as the growth of gross domestic product. Many countries extended the compulsory education period and the number of pupils in Europe’s primary schools increased by 30% during the same period.
Compulsory schooling or education has been introduced in all European countries, although it is not fully implemented everywhere. As a rule, it covers an 8-10-year period, in the UK, however, 11 years. See a full list of European countries from Countryaah.
Developments after World War II. This development in European education can be characterized by the words expansion, democratization and quality. Expansion coincided with economic growth in the 1960’s, while the demand for democratization was already raised in the years immediately following World War II; democratization only really took off, however, when economic growth a few years later created the conditions for it. The connection between economic growth, expansion and democratization of education was the subject of much attention throughout the 1970’s in Europe by politicians, administrators and researchers. The reforms of that period were therefore primarily structural reforms aimed at creating educational unity and coherence.
With the economic downturn and the consequent sharp rise in unemployment following the oil crisis in the mid-1970’s, attention was drawn to better resource utilization, the structure and content of education systems were questioned, and demands for political control and quality control were raised., not least under the influence of the US report A Nation at Risk(1983). The quality requirement that was sought to be met in Europe through increasing decentralization of education, e.g. as regards the competing activities of educational institutions, was further strengthened by the fact that Europe within the same period increasingly saw itself involved in economic and technological competition with Asia and the USA. The reforms of that period aimed more at the content, norms and values of the educations than at the structure.
More education for more. The expansion of the educations has taken hold at all stages of the national education systems. The open and compulsory primary school has throughout the period led to increased pressure on the secondary stages, ie. approximately 11.-18. year. For women, the growth in the search has even been greater than for men, although there is a big difference in which types of education are chosen by resp. women and men, especially in vocational education and training.
Within higher education, the expansion has been reflected in a strong growth in the number of universities and other higher education institutions as well as in new types of institutions such as the so-called open universities. At the same time, the demand for adjustment and flexibility in the adult part of the population throughout Europe has increased interest in adult education, cf. a term such as life-long education, a concept originating in the English educational situation in the 1960’s.
An important feature of post-war development is the establishment of international cooperation on education under the auspices of UNESCO, the Council of Europe and the OECD. In recent years, however, cooperation within the EU has been of the greatest importance to the Member States. Under the Treaty of Rome, this cooperation initially covered only vocational education, but was later extended to include higher education. From the end of the 1970’s a number of exchange programs were developed such as ERASMUS, COMENIUS, LINGUA and TEMPUS. And with Articles 126 and 127 of the Maastricht Treaty, the most far-reaching legal basis so far for increased cooperation in the field of education has been provided, albeit without any harmonization.
Isle of Man
Isle of Man, (manx Ellan Vannin/Mannin), island in the Irish Sea; 572 km2, 84,500 residents (2011), capital Douglas. The Isle of Man belongs to Britain, but has autonomy. The island is known for its financial market, which has arisen due to favorable tax conditions.
Despite the island’s relatively modest size, it has a varied landscape. Centrally located is a mountainous area with the highest point in Snaefell (621 m). North and south of this, flatter agricultural areas spread out towards the steep rock walls of the coast. The island is almost without tree growth. The climate is temperate, without extremes. The coldest month is February with an average temperature of 4.8 °C. The warmest are July and August with 14.6 °C. The annual rainfall is approximately 1000 mm. The tailless manx cat is widespread on the island.
The Isle of Man has an economy that rests on agriculture, fishing industry, tourism and especially manufacturing as well as on the financial sector. 80% of the island’s area is cultivated. The majority is used for grazing area. Cattle, pigs, sheep and chickens are raised here; in addition, cereals and vegetables are grown. The fishing industry is based on cod, flatfish, stingrays and plaice. Due to very favorable tax conditions, the financial sector is dominated by British and overseas subsidiaries, banking, insurance companies, listed companies and ship registration, and the financial activity has increased the island’s population during the 1990’s. Tourism is linked to for the sale of duty-free goods and for the motorcycle race Tourist Trophy, which takes place every year in May/June.
The first residents of the Isle of Man can be dated to approximately 8000-5000 BC The Celts settled approximately 200 BC, and their language, Manx, was dominant until the mid-1800’s. In the early 800-t. Norwegian and Danish Vikings invaded the Isle of Man, after which the island was under Norwegian rule. The Vikings established a parliament, Tynwald (tingvoll), which still forms the basis of the island’s partial domestic political autonomy. The Norwegian king sold the Isle of Man to Scotland in 1266, and the island passed into English supremacy in 1341. 1406-1736 the island was ruled by the Stanley family, but Britain refused to miss out on the Isle of Man’s customs revenue and bought it in 1765. In 1828, the British established the office of lieutenant governor. (Lord of Man), who has since administered the island in collaboration with Tynwald.
Channel Islands, eng. Channel Islands, fr. Îles Normandes, archipelago in the English Channel, located at the entrance to St. Gulf of Malo 25 km off the coast of Normandy in France and 130 km south of the English coast; 163,900 residents (2012), 196 km2.
The majority of the population lives on the two largest islands, Jersey and Guernsey, where also the two largest cities, St. Helier and St. Peter Port, located. Other islands are Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou and Lihou.
Geologically, the islands form fragments of the French coastal area and rise as low rocky islands with incised, steep shores and many skerries. The islands have a coastal climate with very mild winters, which is reflected in the presence of heat-demanding flora and enables the production of early vegetables for the English market, which is considered domestic trade. Jersey cattle are bred for export (see cattle). The climate, tax and customs legislation have made tourism an important source of income.
The Channel Islands belonged from 933 to Normandy, whose duke in 1066 became English king. They remained under the English crown after England’s loss of Normandy in 1204. During World War II, the islands were occupied by Germany. However, the Channel Islands are not in the real sense part of the United Kingdom (UK) and they are not a member of the EU. Jersey and Guernsey with surrounding islands have autonomy with a British-appointed governor for each area, its own parliament, state apparatus, flag and coin, as well as its own legal basis. In the past, the majority of the population was French-speaking, but today English is the dominant language.
Sovereignty over a few of the smaller islands has been challenged by France, because it has an impact on the right to economic exploitation of the sea and the seabed around the islands.