South America – education
Although South America is made up of many different nations, there are clear similarities between the education systems of individual states, especially in terms of school structure and education policy. See a full list of South American countries from Countryaah.
The development was in the 1800’s. primarily inspired by the French encyclopedic education system, but was in the mid-1900’s. also influenced by the North American pragmatic system, which emphasizes the development of personal responsibility, the qualification of the workforce, and great social mobility. The goals of the education systems have therefore changed from elite to mass education with respect for equal access to education.
Since the 1980’s, however, the limited resources have had consequences for teaching materials and school expansion, and there has been a decline in participation in education. Also the more informal folk educations, inspired by the Brazilian educator P. Freire, have around 2000 in many places difficult conditions.
Latin America is the Spanish- and Portuguese- and few French-speaking parts of South and Central America, including Mexico and parts of the Caribbean. The name is due to the fact that these three languages are developed from Latin (so-called Romance languages) as opposed to the Germanic language English spoken in North America (see Angloamerica). The concept of Latin America is linked to the history and cultural history of the area rather than to its geography, and this article deals in particular with cultural-historical topics. Other topics are covered under South America, Central America and the Caribbean as well as under individual countries.
Latin America – legal systems
After the Latin American countries that were Spanish colonies, during the first decades of the 1800-t. had become independent, they chose instead to the Spanish obsolete legal system to introduce the French law books. They were modern, written in clear and powerful language, and harmonized with the revolutionary ideas of freedom and equality that prevailed in Latin America. The Civil Code of some Latin American countries is little more than a translation of the French Code Napoléon; this applies to Haiti, Bolivia, the Dominican Republic and to some extent Mexico.
Other Latin American countries, under the influence of the Chilean Civil Code of 1855, have introduced more original law books, such as Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Paraguay and a number of Central American countries. The Argentine Civil Code of 1869 (with amendments from 1968) is also an independent work that, like the Chilean, is strongly influenced by the French, but has also drawn inspiration from other sources, including German and North American authors. The same applies to the Brazilian Code of Law from 2003, see Brazil (legal system). These more modern law books are considered to be better divided than the French, and they are, like it, written in a clear and concise language.
Latin America cuisine
The cuisines of Latin America are mixed kitchens with many common features, which originate from the continent’s past under Spanish and Portuguese rule. From the mix with Native American, African and other European cuisines, a rich gastronomic blend culture has emerged.
Gastronomically, the area can be roughly divided into areas mainly characterized by Native American culture (Mexico, Central America, the Andean region and the Amazon), the African-influenced areas (Caribbean and most of Brazil) and areas with strong European influence (Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil).
The basic ingredients in the Native American cuisine are corn, brown and black beans and chili (both mild and strong, available in at least 100 varieties) as well as rice, and in the Andean region potatoes (available in several hundred varieties). In addition, many vegetables are used, tomato (green and red) and squash as well as sweet potato (sweet potato). In Mexico-Central America, the pancake-like cornbread tortilla is a central part of the daily diet. Among the Indians of the Amazon, cassava (used for cassava flour) and melanan are among the most important ingredients. Meat is most often a luxury in most places. Most common are poultry and pork.
In African-influenced cuisine, black beans, rice, melbanan, coconut flour, yams and pork are the most common ingredients. In Brazil, the national dish is the heavy feijoada, whose main ingredients are just the above.
In (southern) European cuisine, (beef) meat plays a significant role. In the cattle area of southern Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, as well as a few other places, the beef is cooked whole asado, as grilled steak, churrasco, or you use guts on the grill or in cooked dishes.
Along the coasts and by the great rivers, fish play a significant role, especially along the Pacific coast. From Peru comes the raw marinated fish dish seviche, which has spread to Mexico in the north and Chile in the south.
From Mexico, tamales have spread to most of the continent. It is a corn dough, which is wrapped around a filling, after which it is all wrapped in corn or banana leaves and steamed. Another widespread dish, of European origin, is empanadas, a kind of small, closed pies with fillings. In Chile, they are almost considered a national dish. Common is also pasta in various forms, not least in soups and as an appetizer.
The continent’s great richness of fruits is also included in the gastronomy, partly fresh, partly candied or as ingredients in many dishes and desserts.