France Geography

France Geography

Climate The geographic situation of France determines a wide variety of climatic types. There is an oceanic climate zone, with a low temperature range (mild winter, late spring, relatively cool summer and with average annual rainfall between 800-1000 mm), limited to a narrow strip, to the South, along the Landes, which then it widens N to […]

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France Border

France Border

Caesar indicates as natural borders of Gaul: the Pyrenees, the Mediterranean, the Alps, the Rhine and the Atlantic; and this conception of the natural borders of the French region always remained traditional. The borders were greatly enlarged by the empire of Charlemagne; on the other hand, at the beginning of the Capetian dynasty (end of […]

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France Army

France Army

Since the Middle Ages the “royal” army, made up mainly of mercenaries, first temporarily enlisted, then permanently by the sovereign, rose alongside and, with the modern age, replaced the ancient “feudal” army. When the Revolution broke out and citizens made equal in front of the State, conscription was resorted to, implemented with the mass draft […]

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France Agriculture 1970

France Agriculture 1970

The French economy has undergone profound changes, especially since the end of the 1950s: by transforming and modernizing its structures, France has placed itself among the European countries with the highest income. The demographic revival, the high abandonment of the countryside, the growing urbanization, the inclusion in the EEC, have contributed to changing the face […]

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Norway Architecture

Norway Architecture

According to topschoolsintheusa, a marked sense of environmental responsibility and a high aesthetic sensitivity, often linked to tradition, are the distinctive features of an architectural production that has consolidated under the banner of the link between nature and functional aspects. This has made Norway a significant point of reference at an international level for social […]

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Spain political system

Spain Socialist Hegemony

The change of political leadership, but not of the institutional and social system, characterized the public life of Spain in the following decade. The process of homologation to the political, economic, cultural and social models prevailing in Western Europe, which had already begun in the last phase of the Franco era, was now concluded: the […]

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Private, Criminal and Procedural Law Until the Fall of the Ancient Polish Republic

Private, Criminal and Procedural Law Until the Fall of the Ancient Polish Republic

These rights developed, making use of elements taken from ancient Slavic law and thus demonstrate, for a long period of time, strong similarities in particular with Bohemian and Ruthenian rights. The private law Polish was originally based on the principle of ownership of the race, although the so-called zadruga (home and shared household production), existing […]

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Portugal Music

Portugal Music

In the aftermath of the First World War, the development of a national school contributed to a profound renewal of Portuguese musical life, in the sense of both a revival of the folkloric heritage and an opening towards the main European musical currents of the period, in particularly French Impressionism and Schönberg’s atonalism. Among the […]

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Bulgarian poetry

Bulgaria Literature

Three periods can be indicated in the development of post-war Bulgarian literature: 1944-56; 1956-70; after 1970. These periods generally coincide with the corresponding developmental processes of socialist society, but at the same time they also have an autonomous value in literary development. The flowering of the epic novel is explained by the events of the […]

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Russia Foreign and Security Policy after 2008

Russia Foreign and Security Policy after 2008

In August 2008, the Georgian military offensive against South Ossetia prompted Russia to intervene militarily in the conflict region in the South Caucasus. Russian troops also temporarily advanced to central Georgian territory, which was particularly sharply criticized by the USA and Eastern European countries. Mediation efforts resulted in Russia and Georgia agreeing to an EU […]

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Germany Traditions

Germany Traditions

According to ezinereligion.com, many of the traditions of the German Länder have a religious origin; they are divided between those of Catholic origin and those inspired by Protestant principles and manifest themselves on the occasion of the most important festivities of the year. On all of them dominates that of Christmas, which is the prelude […]

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