Estonia Facts

Estonia Facts and History


Estonia – land of a thousand votes

Estonia is also called “the land of a thousand votes”. A name that the people of Estonia like very much. They prefer to see themselves as a singing people, although the statistics prove you to be right. There are over 1,000 choirs in the relatively small country, with the Estonian Choir Association having around 32,000 members.

Estonia is the northernmost of the three Baltic countries. Many of the Estonian cities belonged to the Hanseatic League for centuries, which dominated the entire Baltic Sea region. The same applies to the former Hanseatic city of Reval, which is now called Tallinn and is the Estonian capital. During and after the Second World War, Estonia was part of the Soviet Union. The Estonian population suffered greatly from this occupation. She still suffers from the fact that Russia still does not recognize the crimes against the Estonian people. After the revolution of 1988 Estonia regained its independence and has been a member of the European Union since May 1, 2004.

Economic growth in 2007 was a sensational 11%. The former timber exporter has become a high-tech country. Almost all of the country is provided with free internet and WIFI. Even in the most remote areas, street signs point to the nearest internet terminal. Many an “old” EU member state should take the small country as an example! With its 1,521 islands, it also has an incredibly beautiful landscape.

Name of the country Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik)
Form of government Parliamentary democracy
Geographical location In Northern Europe on the Gulf of Finla
National anthem Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
Population around 1.34 million, including around 345,000 Russians (Credit: Countryaah: Estonia Population)
Ethnicities The proportion of Estonians in the population is around 69%, the other larger nationality groups are: Russians with approx. 26%, Ukrainians with 2%, Belarusians with 1% and Finns with 1%.
Religions The Estonians mainly belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, with the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Baptist, Methodist and Roman Catholic Churches also represented.
Languages Estonian
Capital Tallinn with approx. 417,150 residents
Surface 45,227 km²
Highest mountain Suur Munamägi with a height of 318 m
Longest river Pärnu with a length of 144 km
Largest lake Peipusssee with an area of 3,555 km²
International license plate EST
National currency Euro (1 € = 100 cents)
Time difference to CET + 1 h
Inexpensive “call by call” area code If you have a telephone connection from Deutsche Telekom AG, you dial as follows:01015 + country code (00372) + phone number

The price per minute is announced before the call.

International phone code + 372
Mains voltage, frequency 230 volts, 50 hertz
Internet Top Level Domain (TLD) .ee

Estonia: history

Estonia was Christianized in the early 13th century. The entire Baltic Sea region was dominated by the Hanseatic League in the 14th century. Many Estonian cities belonged to the Hanseatic League, including today’s capital Tallinn.

According to Abbreviationfinder website, in the 16th century, Estonia was reformed. From 1558 military clashes took place on the Estonian territory between Denmark, Sweden, Russia and Poland. Sweden emerged as the winner of these fights. Estonia was under Swedish rule until the beginning of the 18th century. In 1721, the Estonian territory fell under the rule of Russia.

Modern Estonia

The Republic of Estonia was proclaimed on February 24, 1918. However, real independence was not achieved until the War of Independence from 1918 to 1920. This was followed by a peace treaty with Soviet Russia, but Estonia’s independence came to an abrupt end when the Hitler-Stalin Pact concluded between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany in August 1939. In October 1939, Soviet troops invaded Estonia and formed a provisional government. Baltic Germans were forcibly relocated to the Warthegau. In the following year, after the electoral victory of the party “Union of the Working People of Estonia”, Estonia’s accession to the USSR was declared again. After the invasion of the German Wehrmacht in 1941, the Red Army had to withdraw from Estonia. Estonia was then annexed to the German Reich from 1941-1944. Since December 5, 1941, the country was under German civil administration as a general district within the Reichskommissariat Ostland. The two concentration camps Klooga and Vaivara and their 13 satellite camps were established under German leadership, where around 175,000 people perished. In the autumn of 1944, Soviet Russia was able to rejoin Estonia under its rule. A large part of the population then went into exile. Many Estonians were deported to Siberia. The Swedish speaking minority was taken in by Sweden.

As one of the first states of the Soviet Union, Estonia finally managed to restore independence after the revolution in the summer of 1988. This came into effect in August 1991.

Estonia has been a member of NATO since March 29, 2004 and of the European Union since May 1, 2004. On January 1, 2011, Estonia also joined the euro area.

Estonia Facts