Georgia – a country on the move
Georgia has always been the economic, political and cultural borderland between the Orient and the Occident, not least of course because it is geographically on the border between Europe and Asia. After Georgia regained independence from Russia in 1991, Georgian tourism tries a fresh start. The cities of Tbilisi or Kutaisi, the seaside resorts of Batumi and Kobeleti on the Black Sea and the Caucasian mountain regions are all worth seeing travel destinations. Georgia is an attractive destination for cultural travelers. Countless churches, monasteries, fortresses and cave towns reflect the exciting history of the country.
On August 8, 2008 – the opening date of the Olympic Games in Beijing – Georgia attacked South Ossetia, which was striving for independence, allegedly to restore the country’s unity. However, the Russian intervention turned the attack into a disaster for Georgia. And just a few days later, Georgia had to withdraw its troops and declare a unilateral ceasefire. In the course of the conflict, the Georgian units were quickly put to flight – many are said to have actually run away from the Russians. And on August 13, the clashes were over again – not least due to the consistent action of the Russians. Serious atrocities are said to have occurred in South Ossetia after the Georgian invasion. Russia speaks of over 2.
But the country has now stabilized and is on the right track.
|Name in the national language||Sakartwelo|
|Description in German||Georgia|
|Form of government||republic|
|Geographical location||Eastern Europe, on the border with Asia|
|Population||about 4.5 million (Credit: Countryaah: Georgia Population)|
|Religions||Georgian Orthodox Apostle Church and religious communities of Armenians, Muslims, Catholics, Protestants and Jews.|
|Languages||Georgian; Minority languages: Megrelian, Abkhazian, Armenian, Azeri and Ossetian|
|Surface||approx. 69,700 km²|
|Highest mountain||Shchara, in the Greater Caucasus at 5,068 meters|
|Longest river||Mtkvari with 1507 km, it was called Kura in Soviet times.|
|Largest lake in area||Paravani with 38 km²|
|International license plate||GE|
|National currency||Lari (GEL), 1 Lari is 100 Tetri|
|Time difference to CET||Depending on the part of the country +2 to +3 h|
|International phone code||+995|
|Mains voltage, frequency||220 volts, 50 hertz|
Before the year 1000
In the first few centuries, Christianity gradually invaded Georgia, which became an official religion in the first half of the 4th century. Around 500 Tbilisi became the capital. During the 5th and 6th centuries there were repeated battles between Byzantium and Persia for supremacy in Georgia. The rule of the Arabs over the Georgian small states lasted until 975.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
According to Abbreviationfinder website, in the centuries that followed, Georgia suffered constant attacks from the Romans, Persians, Byzantines, Arabs and Turks, who devastated the country and took control of it. In the 11th and 12th centuries, King Davit succeeded in liberating the country from the Turks. In 1122 the Georgian army recaptured the capital Tbilisi. Under Davit IV, Georgia became one of the most important political powers in the Middle East.
At the end of the 12th century, Queen Tamara ruled the country. Georgia emerged from the victorious wars of her reign as the strongest military power in the Middle East. Its borders now extended from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea.
The high civilization of Georgia in the 12th and 13th centuries ended with the Mongol invasions. Mongol rule lasted until the 14th century. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, the Ottomans and Persians fought for supremacy in Georgia.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
In 1783, King Irakli II, oppressed by Persia and the Ottoman Empire, submitted to the patronage of Russian Tsarina Catherine II. In 1801 Georgia was annexed by Russia, which meant the end of the Georgian monarchy.
In 1917, after the October Revolution, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan initially formed a Trans-Caucasian union (“Sejm”). The German Reich supported the formation of a “Caucasus bloc” with Georgia as its center.
On May 26, 1918, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was established. Some of the national minorities previously under Russian protectorate refused to recognize the country’s independence. In some regions there were uprisings, which were supported by Soviet Russian troops and put down by the Djordania government. After a short time, the Russian Red Army attacked Georgia and occupied the country. On February 25, 1921, Soviet power was proclaimed in Georgia. So Georgia came into the federation of the Soviet Union and became a socialist Soviet republic.
In March 1989 there were demonstrations against the Communist Party (KP) and for Georgian independence. Georgia has been independent again since 1991.
In 1992 Abkhazia declared itself independent, which resulted in the invasion of Georgian troops in Abkhazia and the start of a war. In 1993 the Georgian forces in Abkhazia were completely defeated.
Shevardnadze became president in 1992 and remained so until 2003. In the course of the so-called Rose Revolution in November 2003, opposition demonstrators stormed the session of the Georgian parliament, which had been established as a result of electoral fraud, and expelled President Shevardnadze. Mikhail Saakashvili (born 1967) was elected President on January 4th and sworn in on January 25th. Due to early elections in January 2008, he was re-elected with around 53.4% of the votes.
On August 8, 2008 – the day the Beijing Olympics opened – Georgia attacked breakaway South Ossetia in order to restore the country’s unity. The attack turned into a disaster for Georgia due to the intervention of the Russians. And just a few days later, Georgia withdrew its troops and unilaterally declared a ceasefire. In the course of the conflict, even suburbs of Tbilisi were bombed by Russian bombers. On 12/13. August the fighting was also stopped by the Russian side. From this point on, it can hardly be expected that Abkhazia and Susosetia will return to the Georgian state in the foreseeable future. The big winner of the conflict is Russia.