American Education

American Education and Media

North America

United States of America, officially English United States of America [ju na ɪ t ɪ d ste ɪ ts əv ə mer ɪ kə], abbreviation USA [English JUES e ɪ ], state in North America (2018) 327, 2 million residents; The capital is Washington, DC

The national territory also includes external areas with partly internal self-government: in the Caribbean, Puerto Rico and the American Virgin Islands, and in the Pacific, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Wake, the Midway Islands and American Samoa.

Education

The US education system is characterized by diversity, decentralization, deregulation, and differentiation. There is no uniform national school system. Each of the 50 states has its own education laws. Compulsory schooling usually begins at the age of six and usually lasts until the age of 16. The education system is primarily the public sector, which finances the public school system, which is free for every American as part of compulsory education, from budget funds. Around 10% of the pupils attend the predominantly denominational private schools where school fees have to be paid.

Despite the diversity in the school sector, the contours of the US school system can be described, through which about 90% of students go. The six- or eight-year elementary school (primary school) is followed by attending the six-year high school (secondary school). It is usually divided into Junior High School (3 years) and Senior High School (3 years). As a school type, the high school is an all-day school with a wide-ranging course system. The colleges build on the high schools: The two-year junior college offers vocational training or the program of the first two years of training of the university-oriented four-year college (degree: Bachelor). The four-year colleges are independent or affiliated to universities. In total there are well over 4,000 state and private universities and colleges. Important universities known beyond the USA are the Harvard University (Cambridge, Massachusetts), the University of California at (Berkeley, Los Angeles), Stanford University (Stanford, California), Yale University (New Haven, Connecticut), Princeton University (Princeton, New Jersey) and the Columbia University (New York). The colleges are largely state funded, while the federal government grants student loans to cover tuition and other costs. It also provides funds for the procurement of teaching material, for research and for the implementation of educational programs.

According to bridgat, students must take one or two of the following exams before applying to any higher educational institutes in the United States:

  • ACT
  • SAT
  • GRE
  • GMAT
  • TOEFL
  • IELTS

Media

The freedom of the press has been guaranteed since 1791 in the First Amendment to the US Constitution. The broadcasting landscape is particularly highly developed. The most popular mass media are television and the Internet.

Press: Of around 1,300 daily newspapers, most of which are owned by corporate chains, only two dozen have a circulation of more than 200,000 copies; the largest are “The Wall Street Journal”, “New York Times”, the tabloids “USA Today” (founded 1982), New York Post “(founded 1801) and” New York Daily News “(founded 1919) as well as” Los Angeles Times “(founded 1881), ” The Washington Post “,” Chicago Sun-Times “(founded 1948),” The Denver Post “(founded 1892),” Chicago Tribune “(founded 1847) and” The Dallas Morning News “(founded in 1885). The Sunday editions, of which there are more than 900, often have a greater reach. In addition, various free newspapers appear in the metropolises. News magazines are »Time«, »Newsweek« and »U. S. News and World Report “(monthly). The magazines with the highest circulation include People, Reader’s Digest, Better Homes and Gardens, Good Housekeeping, and National Geographic.

News agencies: AP, Bloomberg News (international financial news service founded in 1981), UPI.

Broadcasting: The United States’ broadcasting system is of exemplary importance for the development of electronic media in the western industrialized countries, because it was here that the private-commercial model was implemented for the first time. Television was introduced as early as 1941. New technical developments such as cable television (from 1950), the Internet and web radios were quickly used commercially. Program content (e.g. TV series, reality shows, late night shows, documentary soaps) is imported or imitated worldwide. – The highest regulatory agency in the United States is the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), whose main task is the licensing of local radio and television broadcasters.

In addition to its basic commercial structure, the broadcasting system is determined by a two-tier system: The networks ABC (Walt Disney Co.), NBC (National Broadcasting Company), CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System Inc.) forward the programs they produce to the local stations, which they in turn broadcast with local contributions. Other major networks include Fox Broadcasting (21st Century Fox), CW (Warner Bros. Entertainment/ CBS) and Ion Television. There are around 11,000 radio stations; the largest chain is owned by Clear Channel. Cable television is widespread; largest cable operator is Comcast. Cable networks are e.g. B. Fox, Disney Channel, USA Network, MTV (music; Viacom Inc.), Nickelodeon (kids), CNN(news), ESPN (sports), and TBS (entertainment). A large satellite TV operator is Dish Network. DirecTV is the world’s largest pay TV operator.

In addition to commercial broadcasters, there is public broadcasting: Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR) are financed from federal funds, voluntary audience and listeners’ contributions and sponsorship money. Compared to the commercial cable and satellite channels, they have little response. Government foreign services are Voice of America (VOA) and Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. The American Forces Network (AFN) broadcasts radio and television for US soldiers stationed abroad.

American Education