South America - education
Although South America is made up of many different nations,
there are clear similarities between the education systems of
individual states, especially in terms of school structure and
education policy. See a full list of
American countries from Countryaah.
The development was in the 1800's. primarily inspired by the
French encyclopedic education system, but was in the mid-1900's.
also influenced by the North American pragmatic system, which
emphasizes the development of personal responsibility, the
qualification of the workforce, and great social mobility. The goals
of the education systems have therefore changed from elite to mass
education with respect for equal access to education.
Since the 1980's, however, the limited resources have had
consequences for teaching materials and school expansion, and there
has been a decline in participation in education. Also the more
informal folk educations, inspired by the Brazilian educator P.
Freire, have around 2000 in many places difficult conditions.
Latin America is the Spanish- and Portuguese- and few
French-speaking parts of South and Central America, including Mexico
and parts of the Caribbean. The name is due to the fact that these
three languages are developed from Latin (so-called Romance
languages) as opposed to the Germanic language English spoken in
North America (see Angloamerica). The concept of Latin America is
linked to the history and cultural history of the area rather than
to its geography, and this article deals in particular with
cultural-historical topics. Other topics are covered under South
America, Central America and the Caribbean as well as under
Latin America - legal systems
After the Latin American countries that were Spanish colonies,
during the first decades of the 1800-t. had become independent, they
chose instead to the Spanish obsolete legal system to introduce the
French law books. They were modern, written in clear and powerful
language, and harmonized with the revolutionary ideas of freedom and
equality that prevailed in Latin America. The Civil Code of some
Latin American countries is little more than a translation of the
French Code Napoléon; this applies to Haiti, Bolivia, the Dominican
Republic and to some extent Mexico.
Other Latin American countries, under the influence of the
Chilean Civil Code of 1855, have introduced more original law books,
such as Ecuador, Venezuela, Colombia, Paraguay and a number of
Central American countries. The Argentine Civil Code of 1869 (with
amendments from 1968) is also an independent work that, like the
Chilean, is strongly influenced by the French, but has also drawn
inspiration from other sources, including German and North American
authors. The same applies to the Brazilian Code of Law from 2003,
see Brazil (legal system). These more modern law books are
considered to be better divided than the French, and they are, like
it, written in a clear and concise language.
Latin America cuisine
The cuisines of Latin America are mixed kitchens with many common
features, which originate from the continent's past under Spanish
and Portuguese rule. From the mix with Native American, African and
other European cuisines, a rich gastronomic blend culture has
Gastronomically, the area can be roughly divided into areas
mainly characterized by Native American culture (Mexico, Central
America, the Andean region and the Amazon), the African-influenced
areas (Caribbean and most of Brazil) and areas with strong European
influence (Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil).
The basic ingredients in the Native American cuisine are corn,
brown and black beans and chili (both mild and strong, available in
at least 100 varieties) as well as rice, and in the Andean region
potatoes (available in several hundred varieties). In addition, many
vegetables are used, tomato (green and red) and squash as well as
sweet potato (sweet potato). In Mexico-Central America, the
pancake-like cornbread tortilla is a central part of the daily diet.
Among the Indians of the Amazon, cassava (used for cassava flour)
and melanan are among the most important ingredients. Meat is most
often a luxury in most places. Most common are poultry and pork.
In African-influenced cuisine, black beans, rice, melbanan,
coconut flour, yams and pork are the most common ingredients. In
Brazil, the national dish is the heavy feijoada, whose main
ingredients are just the above.
In (southern) European cuisine, (beef) meat plays a significant
role. In the cattle area of southern Brazil, Uruguay and
Argentina, as well as a few other places, the beef is cooked whole
asado, as grilled steak, churrasco, or you use guts on the grill or
in cooked dishes.
Along the coasts and by the great rivers, fish play a significant
role, especially along the Pacific coast. From Peru comes the raw
marinated fish dish seviche, which has spread to Mexico in the north
and Chile in the south.
From Mexico, tamales have spread to most of the continent. It is
a corn dough, which is wrapped around a filling, after which it is
all wrapped in corn or banana leaves and steamed. Another widespread
dish, of European origin, is empanadas, a kind of small, closed pies
with fillings. In Chile, they are almost considered a national dish.
Common is also pasta in various forms, not least in soups and as an
The continent's great richness of fruits is also included in the
gastronomy, partly fresh, partly candied or as ingredients in many
dishes and desserts.