Cyprus - a small idyll in the Mediterranean
The island of Cyprus consists of the Republic of Cyprus in the southern part
and the northern part of the island, annexed by Turkey in 1974, the so-called
"Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus", which is not recognized by the
international community. The Republic of Cyprus has been a member of the
European Union (EU) since May 1, 2004 and a member of the Eurozone since January
1, 2008. The island's capital, Nicosia, is a divided city, just like Berlin
used to be.
It should be noted that Cyprus is geographically part of Asia, but politically
part of Europe.
|Name of the country
||Republic of Cyprus
|Form of government
||Third largest and easternmost island in the Mediterranean
105 km west of Syria, 75 km south of Turkey located
belongs geographically to Asia - politically to Europe
||"Ymnos eis tin Eleftherian" (Ode to Freedom)
Text: Dionysios Solomós
Music: Nikolaos Mantzaros
||approx. 1.2 million (Credit:
||Especially Greeks (about 70%) and Turks
minorities: Armenians, Maronites
||Greek Orthodox Christianity
||Greek and Turkish
||Olympos with an altitude of 1,953 m
|International license plate
||Since 1.1. 2008 the euro (€)
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||230 volts, 50 hertz
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Cyprus: history of the country
7,000 to 3,900 BC Chr.
Remnants of a settlement from the New Stone Age (Neolithic) can be seen
in Khirokitia (between Larnaca and Limassol).
3,900 to 1050 BC Chr.
Abbreviationfinder website, copper mining brought the island of prosperity. The Latin word for
copper (cyprium, later kuprium) gave the island its name. Trade arose with the
Middle East, Egypt and the Aegean Sea. From 1400 BC Beginning of the
Hellenization through the first immigration of Greeks, first from Mykonos, then
from Athens, who brought the Greek language, religion and customs with
them. Cities like Paphos, Salamis and Kourion emerged.
1050 to 55 BC Chr.
The island was shaken by huge earthquakes, many cities were completely
destroyed. In the 8th century BC The Phoenicians settled in Kition (today
Kiti). There were 10 kingdoms that were taken one by one by the Assyrians,
Egyptians and Persians. Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and
incorporated Cyprus into his empire.
55 BC BC to 1191 AD
Nefertiti had given the island to Caesar; it was initially a province
of the Roman and after the fall of the Byzantine Empire. In the year 15 BC Fish
farming was invented in Cyprus. Christianization began in the 4th century and
the first basilicas were built. Cyprus was the first Christian country in the
1191 to 1489
Cyprus was conquered first by Richard the Lionheart, then by the
Crusaders under Guy de Lusignan. During this time Gothic buildings such as the
Ayia Sophia Cathedral (Nicosia) and the Bellapais Monastery, which can still be
visited today, were built. In 1489 the last Frankish queen left Cyprus to the
1571 to 1878
The Venetians capitulated to Lala Mustafa; Cyprus was now part of the
After the Ottomans joined Germany in the First World War, Cyprus
was annexed by Great Britain and declared a crown colony in 1925. During
World War II, many Cypriots fought against Nazi Germany under British
command. From 1955 Armed clashes took place with the aim of
liberation from the occupiers.
On August 6, 1960, the Republic of Cyprus was proclaimed on
the basis of the "Zurich Agreement": Archbishop Makarios III was its
president. Cyprus becomes a member of the UN and the Commonwealth. Great Britain
maintains two military bases on the island (Dhekelia, Akrotiri) on a total of
approx. 250 km².
The constitution of 1960 was not suitable for finally
creating peaceful conditions. In addition, the coexistence of the Greek and
Turkish Cypriots was made more difficult by the fact that a group called "EOKA
B" called for the island to be annexed to Greece. Bloody clashes between
Turkish and Greek Cypriots resulted in UN peacekeeping troops being sent to
In 1974 the connection to Greece (ENOSIS) was to be brought about by a
coup by the military junta ruling Greece at the time. Makarios was
kidnapped; the island was in a state of emergency. From July 20th, 1974 air
raids took place through Turkeyinstead of; in the further course 40,000 Turkish
soldiers occupied the northern part of the island. The predominantly Greek part
of the population had to flee to the south, conversely, the Turks, who had
previously lived in the south, left their houses to settle in the north. In
1983 the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" was proclaimed, but it
was not recognized by the international community (with the exception of
Efforts to reunite the island were supported by countless mediation efforts
by the UN, but failed due to a lack of willingness to compromise on both sides.
In 1990 Cyprus applied to join the EU. Further UN mediation proposals
(Butros Ghali Initiative, Annan Plan) were unsuccessful.
In 2002 the two sides entered into direct negotiations. On April 23, 2003,
the border, the so-called "Green Line", was opened, allowing both population
groups to visit the other side.
On April 24, 2004, separate referendums
took place on the basis of the so-called Annan Plan III: The content of this
plan was, however, perceived by the majority of Greek Cypriots as unreasonable
and rejected by 75%, while 65% of the island Turks agreed.
On May 1, 2004 Cyprus became a member of the EU. Membership
was temporarily limited to the southern part of Greece, but the island Turks
were given the prospect of lifting their isolation. The inner Cypriot border
("Green Line") guarded by the UN is currently the external border of the EU.
February 24, 2008
In the runoff election for head of state and head of
government (in one person), the former communist Dimitris Christofias (born
1946) won 54% of the votes over his rival Ioannis Kasoulides, who received 46%
of the votes. In the first ballot on February 17th In 2008 Christofias received
only 33.3% of the vote and was second only to Kasoulidis, who received 33.5% of