Asia is both the largest and youngest of the Earth's continents.
Most of the Asian continent is included with Europe in the Eurasian
Plate, other parts belong to other plates. In the plate tectonic
context, the Arabian Peninsula is not included in Asia. See a full
list of Asian
countries from Countryaah.
the farthest north a more than 1900-3500 million years old
pre-Cambrian continental core, Angara. The bedrock is here exposed
in a small area to the north, the Anabar Shield, and in the Aldan
Massif to the southeast. The earth's crust in the rest of the Asian
mainland, over three quarters of the continent, has been added over
the last 700 million years. years, by the fact that young and old
crustal areas have been united with Angara in so-called growth
This growth has not ceased; a continuous new crust is formed by
the tectonically and seismically active arc systems in Southeast and
East Asia. The plate boundaries are marked here by ocean depths ("
deep sea trenches ")"), where oceanic lithosphere plate sinks in and
into the so-called subduction zones is lowered below the island arcs
to a depth of 650-700 km. It is the tectonic and magmatic processes
in these zones that produce new continental crust; this is done
partly by scraping and adding material stacked up in a thick fringe
in front of the island arches, and partly by magma rising under the
island arcs solidifying as deep rocks or volcanic lava and
ash. Continent growth also occurs by seabed dispersal and plate
movements carrying "fragments" of old continental crust from a
continent Contemporary seabed dispersal south of Australia is thus
leading this continent on a collision course towards Timor and other
islands in Indonesia, and Australia is therefore expected to be
united with Asia someday - just like New Guinea, which is now being
pushed into eastern Indonesia from the east.
The older growth belts of mainland Asia also developed plate
tectonics, and as they formed, shifting plate movements carried Asia
around the globe. When the Baikal calids were added for 700-540
million. years ago, Angara was at 20 ° -40 ° s.br. and collided here
with a leading arch system. The next growth belt, the Altaids, was
added when Asia, during its operation, reached north of the equator.
The Altaids are built of earlier arch systems, which were united
with Asia during the Paleozoic up to the Younger Carboniferous.
Their very complicated structures are due to the fact that the
island arches got pinched when they were added to Asia. They were
twisted, bent together and displaced, and the sediment layers were
folded and penetrated by new magma rocks.
For 300 million years ago, Asia collided with Europe. This was
super continent Pangea, which included Gondwana. During the
collision, Asia and Europe were solidly welded together in the
Uralids, whose western part is now raised like the Ural Mountains..
At the gathering of Pangea, a Precambrian massif from Gondwana,
Serindia, was added to the south of the Altaids. Pangea was already
permeated by fractures and rip-off zones, as it for 240-150 million.
years ago in the Triassic and Jurassic were divided into several
continents and plates. Asia thus became part of the Eurasian Plate.
At the same time, a large cordoned-off sediment basin was developed
in the western Siberian lowlands. Here, thick fresh and brackish
water deposits with an unusually high organic content were
deposited, as now, after just over DKK 100 million. years of
storage, has matured into hydrocarbons and forms some of the world's
largest oil and gas deposits.
The youngest growth zone, the Tethysides, was developed along the
southern and eastern edges of the Eurasian Plateau over the last 250
million years. Seabed dispersal in the oceans south and east of the
Eurasian Plateau carried archipelagos and small and large
continental fragments from the fragmented Pangea towards Asia. The
ancient continent fragments came from the African part of
Gondwanaland and from a now completely divided continental area,
Cathysia, which lay north of Australia. In Northeast Asia, crust was
added from the North American Plate.
The "alien" island arcs and continental fragments of the
Tethysides were interconnected by Cimmeric and Alpine mountain
ranges, folded in the Triassic-Old Cretaceous and in the Younger
Cretaceous-Tertiary, respectively. The Cimmerian collisions affected
the nearby parts of the Altaids, where The Tien Shan Mountains were
pushed up north, so deeply buried oil shales in the Late
Permian-Mesozoic Junggar Basin were raised and slightly folded,
creating rich oil and gas fields in the marginal parts of the basin.
During India's northern drift away from Madagascar, repeated
volcanic eruptions occurred in early Tertiary, forming Deccan's
plateau basalts on top of dilapidated bedrock and rift zones filled
with Permian-Mesozoic sediments. For 50-45 million. years ago,
India's broad northern shelf collided with Asia, and India has since
been pushed further and further north into the Eurasian Plate like a
rambuk. The shelf was thus penetrated by excesses and stacked up in
the Himalayan mountain range south of the Indus-Tsangpo suture,
where remnants of oceanic crust and a trapped arch are preserved.
Mens Himalayaraised, the rivers led the decomposition material
south. It now fills the depression beneath the Indo-Gangetic Plain
and forms two larger deposit cones that extend far into the Arabian
Sea and the Bay of Bengal. During the rise of the Himalayas, a total
of 20 million is estimated. km 3 to have been removed by
The collision and India's sustained northward drift in the Lower
Tertiary and Quaternary brought India about 4,000 km closer to
Angara. The crust during the Indus-Tsangpo suture and the Tibetan
Highlands became unusually thick, 65-80 km. At the same time, large
parts of the previously formed growth belts north of the Indus-Tsangpo
suture were tectonically revived, forming the high mountain ranges
and high plateaus that now characterize the landscapes of Central
Asia. India's northwestern "corner" was pushed deep into the
Cimmerian folding belt where the Pamirbjerg massif was raised. In
Tibet and China, large, still seismically active lateral faults
developed, and worn fold folds in the Altaids were transformed into
young quarry mountains. Even at the southern edge of Angara, the
Baikal rift was torn up like a deep wound that went all the way down
to the bottom of the earth's crust.
India's pressure also drove the Eurasian Plate north; it may have
initiated the development of The Japanese Archers, which have a
foundation of ancient crust. North of Korea, fractures in the rim of
the plate loosened a strip of the old mainland crust, and it
remained while the Eurasian Plate drifted north, and the Sea of
Japan was opened by rapid seabed dispersal for approximately 15
million years ago. In the young depositional basins between the
mainland and the volcanic island arches in East and South Asia,
where the heat flow is large, significant oil and gas deposits have
developed in a relatively short time.
Asia's volatile geological history with lively and varied igneous
activity has meant that the continent is extremely rich in mineral
resources. Among other things, iron, nickel, platinum, chromium,
tungsten, molybdenum, uranium, tin, lead, copper, gold, silver,
antimony and mercury. Very famous are the Siberian diamond deposits,
which are connected to deep crater pipes, where diamond-bearing
mantle rocks from at least 150 km depth have been explosively
carried up into the otherwise extremely stable crust of the Angara
core. It happened for 450-150 million. years ago, while new growth
belts were being developed around the core. Diamonds are also mined
in the Ural Mountains and have most recently been found in some
localities within the Altaids.
Sedimentarily formed phosphate-rich layers are widespread in
Kazakhstan and eastern Siberia; they are extracted for fertilizer.
Asia also houses large deposits of coal and lignite; wrestling takes
place in central Siberia, China, Vietnam, India and Indonesia.