Yemen, which is a state that was formed when two of the world’s poorest countries united, has found itself in very difficult circumstances as the initial situation was extremely difficult in terms of foreign policy and even worse economically. Coordinating different social and economic systems has not been painless. The economy has been largely dependent on support from abroad and on the income that Yemenis working abroad have sent to their home country. Check clothesbliss for Yemen population, history and economy.
Agricultural production and farming are hindered by the mines that remain in the ground after the crises. The one-sided export and oil price fluctuation make the country’s economy very vulnerable.
Yemen’s most important export product, labor, does not appear in the merchandise trade statistics. Guest workers from Yemen appear in neighboring countries in the hundreds of thousands.
Almost 85% of Yemen’s export products originate in crude oil, other export products are coffee and cotton. The main exporting countries are China, South Korea, Singapore and Saudi Arabia. In both North and South Yemen, the commercial production of petroleum only began in 1987 and after that Yemen has become an interesting object for the international oil industry.
Imports include food (30%), machinery and means of transport (23%) and processed products (16%). The main importing countries are Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the United States.
Since 1997, the government has implemented the World Bank ‘s and the International Monetary Fund ‘s IMF structural building program which, in conjunction with the increased world market price of oil, improved Yemen’s macroeconomic situation. The main cause of concern for the government continues to be diversifying the economic structure and attracting foreign investment to the country. Within agricultural production, Yemen’s degree of self-sufficiency is decreasing and the cathods are spreading at the expense of the former central export products cotton, fruit and vegetables.
After association in 1990, Yemen has strived to move away from the category of “the world’s poorest countries”. National product and primary education opportunities have also advanced, and child mortality and illiteracy have declined. Of the women, 56% can read and of the men 87%. As a result of the investments that have been made in the health care field, the child mortality rate is 65 deaths per thousand, and the life expectancy has risen to 57 years. Despite the progress, Yemen’s social and economic development continues to depend on foreign aid.
During the Persian Gulf War, Yemen’s aid to Iraq caused foreign aid programs to be cut, the collapse of the Soviet Union also reduced aid. In 2003, Yemen had again received plenty of development aid from various quarters. Central donors are Japan, Qatar, other Arab countries and the EU.
Yemen’s country-wide problem is widespread and structural poverty, which creates fertile ground for internal unrest. Reducing poverty is a challenge, especially in rural areas. It is estimated that 29% of the population lives below the poverty line.
In order to exploit natural resources such as oil and gas and the foreign investments that are necessary, political and economic stability is assumed, which Yemen lacks. With UNDP’s participation, Yemen has tried to clarify its development strategy for the donor countries. The need for development support is two-fold: immediate aid for social development (including food) and long-term investment programs for the development of the country’s industrial production and infrastructure. Development of production that is independent of oil could remedy the country’s unemployment figures.
Yemen today has not changed since the 1970s.Even today, Yemen is a strongly patriarchal country where the men rule and the women are subordinate. In addition to being patriarchal, in Yemen today there are a number of terrorist organizations that rule and worsen an already difficult situation. Poverty mainly affects women and children. In addition to patriarchy and poverty, many diseases and parasites are ravaging Yemen. Young girls are married off and have children early, which leads to many dying in childbirth because their pelvises are too small. Yemen is ranked 144th on the list in gender equality in the ranking list from the Global gender report. A list that addresses 144 of the world’s countries in gender equality. Yemen has had this place for a long time.
United Nations Development Goals
- Of the age group in primary school (2000–2001): 67%
- Literate 15–24-year-olds: 66.7%
- Girls/boys in primary school: 0.60
- Share of women in the workforce (except in agriculture): 7%
- The number of female elected officials: 1
- Mortality among children under 5 years/1000 live births: 107
- Maternal mortality(cot death) per 100,000 births: 850
- Tuberculosis patients/100,000 inhabitants: 70
- Tons of carbon dioxide emissions/inhabitant: 1.1
- Telephone subscriptions, mobile or fixed/100 inhabitants: 3.0
- Internet users/100 inhabitants: 0.1
Source: UNDP Human Development Report 2003