Republic of the Congo – One of the two Congos
The two Congos are separated from the Congo and its tributary Ubangi. In the southeast of the republic, the Congo is temporarily expanding into a kind of lake, the Pool Marengo. On one of the banks of this “pool” is Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo. On the opposite bank is Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
With the collapse of the Eastern bloc, the head of state and party leader Sassou-Nguesso began democratizing the country in the early 1990s. The People’s Republic of the Congo was renamed the Republic of the Congo. But after Sassou-Nguesso was defeated in the first democratic and highly controversial elections against Lissouba, the attempt at democratization turned into a civil war. This civil war was followed by two more – numerous fatalities and huge waves of refugees were the result.
|Name of the country||Republic of the Congo|
|Form of government||Presidential Republic|
|Geographical location||West coast of central Africa|
|National anthem||La Congolaise|
|Population||about 5.5 million (Credit: Countryaah: Republic of the Congo Population)|
|Ethnicities||mostly bantu groups|
|Religions||60% of the population are Catholic, 10% Protestant, 10% are Muslims, 20% follow natural religions|
|Languages||French is the official language|
|Highest mountain||Monts de la Lékéti with an altitude of 1,040 m|
|Longest river||Congo with a length of 4,835 km|
|Largest lake||There are no larger lakes in the Republic of the Congo.|
|International license plate||RCB|
|National currency||CFA franc = 100 centimes|
|Time difference to CET||0 h|
|International phone code||00242|
|Mains voltage, frequency||220 volts and 50 hertz. Adapter recommended|
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)||.cg|
Republic of the Congo: history
The Kingdom of the Congo
In the area of today’s Angola, the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Kingdom of the Congo was established around 1370 and existed until the 17th century. This Bantu empire was one of the most important and largest African states. Smaller pre-colonial kingdoms in the region included the Lunga Empire, whose center was near Pointe-Noire, and the Bateke Kingdom, which existed until the end of the 19th century.
The colonial era
According to Abbreviationfinder website, in 1880 France began to occupy the region north of the Congo River, which was united with Gabon in 1888 and declared a colony of French Congo in 1891. From 1910 the country belonged to Gabon, Central Africa and Chad to the colony of French Equatorial Africa, Brazzaville became the capital.
Republic of the Congo
In 1957 the area became autonomous and in 1960 the independent Republic of the Congo-Brazzaville was established in the French Community. The first President, F. Youlou, was overthrown in 1963, and after a series of overthrow attempts, President A. Massemba-Débat was also deposed in 1969. After the establishment of a National Revolutionary Council headed by M. Ngouabi, the Congo was declared a People’s Republic in 1969. The government established close ties to the communist states and brought in Cuban military and civil advisers, among others, but remained an associated EC member. Brazzaville was used by the Soviet Union as a supply base for the Angolan liberation movement MPLA during the Angolan civil war. Meanwhile, the country’s population increasingly suffered from the mismanagement. 1977 Ngouabi was murdered, his successor J. Yhombi-Opango was also overthrown in 1979. Colonel D. Sassou-Nguesso became the new head of state and party. His policy was aimed at greater cooperation with the Western powers.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Sassou-Nguesso began to initiate a process of democratization in 1990. At the National Conference convened in 1991, it was decided to rename the country the Republic of the Congo. In 1992 the new presidential democratic constitution came into force. In the controversial parliamentary and presidential elections of 1993, Professor P. Lissouba was elected President. However, bloody clashes and an intervention by Angolan troops on the side of the ex-president in 1997 led to Lissouba’s fall and Sassou-Nguesso to regain power. In 2002 he stood for election and was confirmed in office with 89% of the vote.