Oman Facts

Oman Facts and History


The Sultanate of Oman is the easternmost country of the Arabian Peninsula and is located in one of the driest regions on earth.

For a long time the country had disappeared from the consciousness of the western world, even though it had been one of the most influential maritime trading nations until the 19th century.

However, with the start of oil exports in the 1970s, Oman quickly regained influence.

Nowadays, the sultanate bases its wealth on the black gold – oil – which is reflected in the modernization of the country and the high number of guest workers (around 27%). But it is also interesting that Oman has the largest stocks of frankincense trees. Frankincense served and serves as a remedy and spice in addition to its use in the church.

Name of the country Sultanate of Oman
Form of government monarchy
Geographical location in the southeast of the Arabian Peninsula
National anthem Ya Rabbana Ehfid Lana Jalalat Al Sultan
Population approx. 3.1 million (Credit: Countryaah: Oman Population)
Ethnicities approx. 73% Omanis, as well as Persians, Indians, Baluch and Africans
Religions approx. 88% Muslims; The state religion is Ibadite Islam.
Languages Arabic
Capital Masqat with surroundings approx. 1 million residents
Surface 309,500 kmĀ²
Highest mountain Jebel Shams with a height of 3,009 m
Rivers Wadi Andam, Wadi Atina
Largest lake Umm as-Samim
International license plate OM
National currency 1 Omani Rial = 1,000 Baizas
Time difference to CET + 3 h
International phone code + 968
Mains voltage, frequency 220 – 240 volts, 50 hertz
Internet TLD (Top Level Domain) .om

Oman: history

Before the year 1000

Already around 2,500 BC Shipbuilding began in Oman and copper export to the surrounding area. Between 500 BC Trade, especially in incense, was further expanded. Sea trade relations with India and East Africa were established as early as the 1st century.

According to Abbreviationfinder website, around 563 BC, the Nordoman was taken by the Persians. In 630 Oman was Islamized. In the 7th century there was a flourishing maritime trade with China.

From the year 1000 to the 17th century

Between 1506 and 1508 the Portuguese conquered Masqat and large parts of Oman. The Portuguese were only driven out in the 1650s.

In the 18th and 19th centuries

The expansion of the Omani naval rule and the conquest and colonization of India, Persia and East Africa took place in the early 18th century. In 1744 Imam Ahmad bin Said defeated the Persians and founded the Al-Bu-Said dynasty. In 1752, East Africa was split between Portugal and Oman. In the early 19th century, the British attacked the north coast of Oman. Until 1828, Oman expanded its maritime domination in the Indian Ocean. Further colonies emerged in Persia and Pakistan. With the death of Sultan Said in 1856 a dispute about succession broke out in Oman. The country was divided in two. From 1868 to 1959 the imam ruled inland and the sultan ruled the coast. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, however, the ports of Oman lost their importance.

In the 20th century

In 1920 the division of Oman was confirmed by the Treaty of Seeb between the Sultan and the Imam. Between 1945 and 1947 there was a conflict between Oman, Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia with the intervention of Great Britain. In 1967 Oman began exporting oil. In 1971 Oman became a full member of the UN. Oman and the United Arab Emirates founded the Gulf Council in 1981. As a result of the Gulf War, Oman provided troops in 1990 to defend Saudi Arabia and to recapture Kuwait. A first written constitution was issued in 1996. A year later, women’s suffrage, a parliament and a state council were introduced. In 2000 Oman became a member of the WTO.

Oman Facts