Nigeria – The most populous country in Africa
Nigeria – located on the Atlantic Ocean in West Africa – is an oil producing country and therefore receives large sums of money from its production and sale. But does the population benefit from this blessing? Unfortunately, no. Like many African countries, Nigeria suffers from the basic evils of corruption and the abuse of power by its leaders. In Nigeria, too, this means that only a small power elite benefit from the wealth and the rest, in some cases, have to live in great poverty. But also the fact that the north is essentially Muslim and the south is more Christian, leads time and again to considerable conflicts that often end bloody. Then there are the conflicts among the numerous different ethnicities.
According to Amnesty International (ai), it is very common in Nigeria that girls and women are raped by police officers or soldiers on guards or in barracks. The documented rapes were used, among other things, to compel confessions or to intimidate individuals or even entire communities. The perpetrators almost always go unpunished. In the north, which is dominated by Islam, a complaint for the women concerned can even result in an unproven accusation or an extramarital sexual relationship leading to the death penalty by stoning.
In the southeast of the country, more and more children are killed by their own parents as so-called witch children. Often due to tremendous pressure from their neighbors and religious leaders. The number of children killed is now estimated at several thousand. This witchcraft is fueled by evangelical “pastors” and supported by high local politicians.
In a more positive sense, Nigeria draws attention to itself with a very potent film industry that operates under the term “Nollywood”. Most of the world’s films are now shot there. The productions are mostly films with a low budget and amateur actors. Athletes and those interested in sports will be interested in the fact that from March 1, 2007 to February 20, 2008 Berti Vogts (born 1946) was the coach of the Nigerian national team. Vogts was the coach of the German national team from 1990 to 1998.
|Name of the country||Federal Republic of Nigeria|
|Form of government||Presidential Republic|
|Geographical location||West Africa|
|National anthem||Arise, O compatriots, Nigeria’s call obey|
|Population||about 214 million (Credit: Countryaah: Nigeria Population)|
|Ethnicities||there are around 400 different ethnic groups:approx. 21% Hausa, approx. 20% Yoruba, approx. 17% Ibo, approx. 10% Fulani and 4% Kanuri, furthermore Tuaregs, Ibibio and others|
|Religions||Muslims, Christians, natural religions|
|Languages||English, various African languages, etc. French|
|Capital||Since 1991 Abuja (previously Lagos)|
|Highest mountain||Chappal Waddi with a height of 2,419 m|
|Longest river||Niger with a total length of 4,181 km|
|Largest lake||Lake Chad with a total area of approx. 20,700 km²|
|International license plate||WAN|
|Time difference to CET||CET applies.|
|International phone code||00234|
|Mains voltage, frequency||220/250 volts, 50 Hertz, adapter recommended|
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)||.ng|
In pre-colonial times, there were various Yoruba, Haussa and Nupe states in the area of today’s Nigeria, such as the Yoruba empire Oyo and the Haussa emirates as well as a number of decentralized societies. From around the beginning of the 16th century, various European states began to engage in slave and other trade in the region.
According to Abbreviationfinder website, in 1804, a “holy war” was declared by the Islamic scholar Usman dan Fodio. This led to the emergence of the Fulbe Empire under Sokoto, which subsequently conquered other areas in the east and south-west. In 1861 the British settled on the Nigerian coast and in 1903 subjugated the Fulbe Empire. From 1914 there was a unified British colonial administration for Nigeria.
The first African political movements arose around 1920, and after 1945 the National Congress for Nigeria and Cameroon (NCNC) was formed. In 1960 Nigeria became independent, in 1963 the republic was founded. Conservative forces from the north predominated in government. Corruption, electoral fraud and social tension led to tribal and party conflicts. In 1966, following a coup d’état, a group of officers and civil servants led by Y. Gowons took over the government. As a result of pogroms against the Igbos, the military governor in the east of the country, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu (born 1933), who himself belongs to the Igbos, proclaimed independence on May 30, 1967 and named the state Biafra. The central government of Nigeria sought to to maintain the unity of the state and received military aid from Great Britain and the USSR. The civil war that ensued lasted three years and was marked by unbelievable atrocities. It ended in 1970.
Nigeria’s economic importance increased as a result of oil exports, but the social differences in Africa’s most populous country continued to intensify. In 1975 the government was overthrown again. Measures to democratize the country took place under General MR Mohammed, which were continued after his assassination in 1976 by his successor General Olusegun Aremu Obasanjo (born 1937). In 1978 the new constitution was declared.
In the 1979 elections, the National Party of Nigeria (NPN) narrowly won, and AS Shagari became president. He pursued a policy of close cooperation with the western industrialized countries. In 1983 Shagari was re-elected by a large majority, but was overthrown by the military that same year. After another coup in 1985, General Ibrahim Babangida (1941) came to power in Nigeria. In the parliamentary elections of 1992, the Social Democratic Party won.
The presidential elections were held in June 1993 amid bloody unrest, which was subsequently canceled by Babangida. However, he had to resign shortly afterwards. In November 1993, the military came back to power. The repressive policy of the new ruler General S. Abacha culminated in the execution of the writer and environmentalist Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other Ogon regime critics in November 1995. This led to international protests.
In 1998, after Abacha’s death, the new head of government, General A. Abubakar, initiated the return to a civilian system of government. In the presidential elections that were free again for the first time in 15 years in 1999, the PDP won an absolute majority, and the former military president Olusegun Obasanjo became the new president. In 2003 he was confirmed for a second term, albeit in a controversial election.
In 2011, in the presidential elections in April of that year, the Christian Goodluck Janathan of the “People’s Democratic Party” won over his Muslim opponent Muhammadu Bubari.