Morocco travel information

Morocco Geology


Most of the Morocco opens wide on the Atlantic Ocean, on a front of about 1000 km, but the rocky and straight coast, difficult to land, contributed to its isolation. On the other hand, the fold system of the Atlas, of relatively recent origin, isolates it both with respect to the Sahara and with the rest of North Africa, even if it is not an obstacle to the humid winds of the Atlantic which bring about their rainfall well into the country, influencing the climatic conditions. Furthermore, it should be noted that the Middle Atlas has contributed to breaking up the geographic unity of Morocco, since it is interposed between the eastern and western regions. The eastern mountain includes a region of plateaus, however, closed to the humid winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean precisely from the Middle Atlas chain; here the steppe goes far north, making eastern Morocco a region with little agricultural value. However, there is no shortage of settlers, mostly Algerians, who have extended the cultivation of cereals in the Oudjda area and the grapevine and irrigated crops in the small coastal plain of Tiffra. But the wealth of this region is based on the mineral riches: the anthracite of Djerada and the nearby lead deposits, the manganese of Bou Arfa, which feed the traffic of a southern railway line to a far greater extent than the wool that flows into it. at the Berguent market and at the alpha. This predominantly mining interest line, which was extended to the Algerian port of Nemours, it crosses at Oudjda with the longitudinal railway line and the great road artery that connect Morocco to Algeria. The most important center of the region is Oudjda (85,500 residents), Whose population is of Algerian origin.

Between the eastern and western regions of the plains and plateaus gravitating over the Atlantic extends the region of the mountains (Anti-Atlas, High Atlas and Middle Atlas). The Anti-Atlas owes to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean the fact that it is still home, between the Siroua and the sea, of sedentary populations: the Chleuh, who practice some irrigated crops, livestock and in the West also non-irrigated crops. However, they are obliged to both seasonal and permanent emigration towards the Atlantic, Tunisia and France. In the High Atlas the populations of the western sector, belonging to the Chleuh group, for the best rain conditions, are mostly dedicated to agriculture (cereals and irrigated crops). Their emigration is considerable, despite the mining activity. The populations of the eastern sector (the Brabers), on the other hand, are turned to pastoralism (transhumance at altitude) rather than agriculture. The Middle Atlas, facing the Atlantic Ocean, is the one with the greatest rainfall; these make its pastures and forests particularly rich. Despite the extension of crops in the lower parts, livestock still remains the main resource. Tents are numerous despite the variety of types of rural houses. The settlement and the economy still partly reflect the Saharan origin of certain tribes. The Middle Atlas still remains strongly attached, in the heart of Morocco, to its traditional forms; it is generally contrary to the phenomenon of emigration and represents an element of continuous dissension. The riffana chain, very complex in its geomorphological structure, it is difficult to pass through, especially on the northern side. The west, wetter, is inhabited by the Djebala, who have long been Arabized; the east, drier and poorer, is the town of the Riffani, a population of active Berber speakers, for whom emigration is a necessity. For Morocco travel information, please check

The most active region, however, is made up of the plains and plateaus of the western or better Atlantic. Here the circulation is extremely easy and therefore the external influence has been able to expand without encountering natural obstacles. In fact, the population has been almost completely Arabized: it is here that an “Arab block” was formed next to the “Berber block” of the mountain. It is in this region that urban centers have developed, originating from circulation and exchanges. The population has suffered the effects of migrations, wars and invasions and consequently does not present any homogeneity and cohesion. It is the only region of Morocco that has undergone a more or less decisive French influence, especially on agricultural evolution and on the evolution of urban life. It can be divided into two geographical units. To the north, the Sebu basin, which represents the richest and most vital area of ​​Morocco. The abundant rainfall has made agriculture prosperous alongside livestock, favored by the work of colonization in the plains of Fez, Meknès and Gharb. Fez (179,000 residents) Has been over the centuries not only the center of Arab, religious and intellectual life of the whole country, but also the economic capital of northern Morocco Meknès (140,000 residents) Represents a recent rival. Despite the presence of Kenitra (Port-Lyautey), this rich area still lacks a real sea outlet. The other geographical unit is constituted by the crystalline plains and penepians of the south. The penepiano area, between 200 and 600 m, does not have much rainfall, except in the northern part. and is therefore characterized by a climate with a continental trend, however it benefits from the waters descending from the Middle and High Atlas. The tribes, once semi-nomadic, have a tendency today to extend their cereal crops at the expense of pastures and therefore to become sedentary. The exploitation of the Khouribga and Louis-Gentil phosphate deposits and the development of irrigated crops in connection with the construction of large reservoirs on the mountains contribute to a rapid evolution of the country’s economy and lifestyle. The ancient city of Marrakech (215,312 residents), The capital of the south, represents a large market where the people of the mountains and the desert converge. The coastal plains, which extend south of Rabat, are more favored by the atmospheric humidity that from the rainfall is not significant. Non-irrigated crops are possible a little everywhere, but especially among the Chaouia and the Doukhala, while they become somewhat random among the Abda and Chiadma. The traditional economy is based on the cultivation of winter and spring cereals (corn) and on sheep breeding; less importance is the breeding of cattle. Colonization has particularly transformed the plain of the Chaouia and the north of the country of the Doukhala and has completely changed the landscape of the coastal areas, with the rapid development of the cultivation of first fruits. The development of the coastal cities was prodigious; not so much Rabat (156.209 residents), as Casablanca (682.388 residents), the great maritime emporium of the country. Further south, Safi (56,000 residents) Is undergoing full development; Agadir (30,111 residents) Was completely destroyed in the terrifying earthquake of 1 March 1960.

Morocco travel information