Religion. – Currently the population is overwhelmingly Catholic (13,921,226 according to the 1921 census); the same census gave 73,951 Protestants, 22,718 of other religions and 208,836 without religious faith or of undeclared religion.
During the century. XIX a series of measures, from 1833 onwards, led to the complete separation of the Church from the State: separation implemented in a distinctly anti-clerical sense, with the suppression of religious orders and ecclesiastical property, prohibition of religious functions outside churches, etc. These and other similar measures have also been aggravated recently with measures, such as the expulsion of foreign priests, which led to a break in relations with the Holy See, the expulsion of the apostolic delegate, and the attempt to establish a national church., as well as very serious measures against priests, faithful and places of worship. However, these measures have not been able to shake the faith of the majority of the population, in which, especially in the lower classes,
The Catholic hierarchy includes the metropolitan headquarters of: Puebla de los Ángeles (Angelopoli, formerly Tlaxcala; founded in 1525, metropolitan since 11 August 1903) with suffragans Huejutla (22 November 1922), Huajuapán de León (formerly Mixtecas, 25 April 1902 and November 28, 1903), Papantla (November 24, 1922); of Antequera (1535, metropolitan from 23 June 1891; residence in Daxaca) with suffragans Chiapas (1539; residence in San Cristóbal Las Casas) and Tehuantepec (1893); of Durango (1623; metropolitan from 23 June 1891) with suffragans Chihuahua (1891), San Luis Potosí (1854), Tamaulipas (formerly Ciudad Victoria; 1870; resid. in Tampico); of Morelia (formerly Michoacán, 1536; metropolitan from 19 March 1863) with suffragans Leon (1862), Querétaro (1862), Tacámbaro (26 July 1913), Zamora (1863); of Yucatán (1536; metropolitan from 11 November 1906, with residence in Mérida), with suffragans Campeche (1895), Tabasco (1880; resid. in S. Juan); also the apostolic vicariate of lower California (January 20, 1874; with residence in La Paz).
Armed Forces. – Army. – The budget for national defense (army and navy) foresaw, in 1930, the expenditure of 83,200,000 gold pesos (equal to 745,000,000 lire, and 25.6% of the general budget) and a balanced force of 81,500 men, including 17,500 officers and 6,000 non-commissioned officers. Supreme commander of the army is the president of the republic, who delegates his authority to the Minister of War and Navy. The territory is divided into 36 military regions. The army is made up of the active army and reserves (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th). For Mexico military, please check militarynous.com.
The active army includes: 62 infantry battalions (of 3 rifle companies and 1 machine gun company); 95 cavalry regiments (of 3 squadrons and 1 submachine gun section); 3 field artillery regiments (of 2 groups of 2 batteries of 75 mm.) And 1 of mountain (2 groups of 2 batteries of 70 mm.); 1 engineering battalion, 1 group of 3 aviation squadrons (in total about forty aircraft). It also includes: services (manufacturing and procurement; health; administration; military justice) and special corps: presidential guard (2 battalions of infantry and cavalry regiments); invalid body; fixed territorial companies; military music. Recruitment is voluntary, with a 3-year term. Service obligation: from the 18th to the 45th year. The reserves can be used for various needs. The non-commissioned officers (2nd and 1st class sergeants) are recruited by the enlisted troops, through non-commissioned pupils’ schools. The officers on active duty are drawn, with the rank of second lieutenant, from the pupils and non-commissioned officers of the official recruitment schools.
Navy. – The Mexican navy, of modest value also because the country’s frequent political upheavals hinder its regular development, includes the following units: 1 coastal battleship El Anáhuac (ex-Brazilian), launched in 1898, of 3200 t. and 15 knots, armed with 2/240, 4/120 and 2 launch tubes; 5 gunboats: Plan de Guadalupe, launched in 1892, of 830 t. and 12 knots, armed with 4/57; Bravo, launched in 1903, of 1200 t. and 17 knots, armed with 2/102, 4/57 and a launch tube; Tampico and Veracruz, launched in 1902, of 1000 t. and 15 knots, arm the first with 2/102, 4/57 and a launch tube, the second with 4/102, 6/57 and a launch tube; Agua Prieta, launched in 1891, from 1200 t. and 15 knots, armed with 4/102 and 2/47; 6 patrol vessels: 18 de Mayo and Yaki, launched in 1917, of 77 t. and 17 knots; Cobarrubias, Guaymas, Mazatlan, Salinas, launched in 1918, from 150 t. and 9 knots, armed with a 76; an armed transport, Progreso, and some smaller ships.
Finance. – Budgets and public debt. Ordinary income and expenses of the federal government were, in millions of gold pesos:
The main asset is given by customs duties, the proceeds of which amount to more than ⅓ of the total revenue; stamp duties, industrial taxes and income tax follow at a distance. Among the expenses, those for national defense are of fundamental importance and, secondly, those for communications, for public education and for the service of the public debt. As of July 1, 1930, the consolidated debt was 1185 million pesos, of which 964 was borne by the government, and the rest of the national railways with a guarantee from the government itself. On December 22, 1931, an agreement was concluded with the International Committee of Bankers, with which the government undertook to repay the 270 million dollars of foreign debt, issuing a new loan of 267 million dollars at 5%, guaranteed by the duties of import and export.
Money and credit. – The law of 25 July 1931, while theoretically preserving the peso as a monetary unitor gold dollar worth 0.75 grams of pure gold, eliminated gold from circulation by putting an end to the particular bimetallic regime introduced in Mexico in 1904. The circulation is therefore currently composed only of silver pesos (equal to 0.75 grams of gold) and of notes issued by Banco del Mexico, which in 1925 was granted the privilege of issuing (previously belonging to several banks now in liquidation) and which is authorized to issue tickets (which, however, are not legal tender) up to the double limit of the metal reserve and in foreign currencies. The circulation, once the monetary commission, which had been created by the monetary law of 1931, is dissolved, is currently entrusted to the Bank of Mexico.