Macedonia Facts

Macedonia Facts and History


Macedonia – Land of Alexander the Great

When you hear Macedonia, you may get confused: Isn’t that what you mean Macedonia? Is that now in Greece ? Which is the new independent state on the Balkan island? The answers to this are “correct”. Yes, it is the independent state that was formerly part of Yugoslavia, and it is also an area of Greece. Macedonia is just the German name for Macedonia. This used to include both the present-day republic and the area in Greece. The formerly great Macedonia disintegrated in numerous wars.

Alexander the Great (356 BC to 323) came from Macedonia.

The new republic emerged from the breakup of Yugoslavia. Like the neighboring countries, it is a colorful mixture of different ethnic groups and cultures. And due to its equally diverse history, the cities are also shaped by different epochs and architectural styles, which has produced a remarkable cultural wealth. For example, Ohrid, the city on Lake Ohrid, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. And since the UÇK laid down its arms, Macedonia has become a safe travel destination, with beautiful cities and landscapes.


Since 2018, the state has been called the Republic of North Macedonia.

Name of the country Republic of North Macedonia
Form of government Parliamentary democracy
Independence September 08, 1991
Geographical location In southern Europe, north of Greece and south of Serbia
National anthem “Denes Nad Makedonija” (“Today about Macedonia”)
Population approx. 2.1 million (Credit: Countryaah: Northern Macedonia Population)
Ethnicities Macedonians 64.2%, Albanians 25.2%, Turks 3.9%, Roma 2.7%, Serbs 1.8%, Bosniaks 0.8%, Vlachians 0.5%, others 1.0%
Religions approx. 32.4% Macedonian Orthodox Church, 16.9% Muslims, Catholic Church, Protestant Methodists, Jews
Languages Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Romani, Serbian
Capital Skopje with about 507,000 residents
Surface 25,713 km²
Highest mountain Golem Korab with a height of 2,764 m
Longest river Vardar with a length of 388 km
Largest lake Ohrid with an area of 349 km²
International license plate MK
National currency Macedonian Denar (MKD)
Difference to CET = CET
International phone code 00389
Mains voltage, frequency 220V, 50 Hz
Internet Top Level Domain (TLD) .mk

Macedonia: history

Until around the year 1000

In the 4th century BC Chr. Macedonia was under the reign of Philip II with half the Balkan Peninsula along a major power. Alexander the Great, the son of Philip II, extended this empire to the Indus (river in what is now Pakistan and India). In the 2nd century BC Chr. Is dissolved Ancient Macedonia from the Roman Empire and is one of the many provinces. 6th century AD: Slavic tribes immigrate to Macedonia, but the Byzantine influence was still strong. In the 8th/ 9th In the 17th century, Macedonia belonged to the Bulgarian Empire under Simeon I. From 976 to 1014, Tsar Samuil ruled over the western Bulgarian Empire with its capital Ohrid.

From the year 1000 to the 17th century

According to Abbreviationfinder website, in the 12th – 14th centuries Macedonia belonged to the Serbian Empire, but became Turkish from 1371, especially after the defeat of the Serbs against the Ottomans on the Blackbird Field (1389), and belonged to the Ottoman Empire with brief interruptions until 1912.

In the 18th and 19th centuries

In 1878 Macedonia was assigned to the autonomous Bulgaria for a short time, but in the same year it fell back to the Ottoman Empire. A conflict arose between Bulgaria and Greece over the “Macedonian question”, i.e. where Macedonia belonged.

20th century until today

In 1912 the so-called Balkan alliance between Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece was founded to attack the Turks in the first Balkan War. The goal was to conquer Turkish Macedonia. The Ottoman Empire lost this war and had to cede a large part of its European territories. In 1913 Bulgaria started the second Balkan War, this time against Serbia and Greece. Again this war was about the partitioning of Macedonia. Macedonia was then divided. The largest part went to Serbia, the second to Greece, while Bulgaria received only a small part.

During the First World War, Bulgaria occupied all of Macedonia, but in 1919 lost almost the entire area again. Again the main part went to Serbia. During the Second World War, Bulgaria was able to conquer a large part of Macedonia again from 1941 onwards, but it finally lost it to Yugoslav partisans in 1944. 1944-1946 a socialist Yugoslav republic was founded. Tito appointed Vardar Macedonia as a Yugoslav federal state.

In 1990 the first free elections took place in Macedonia. On September 8th, 1991 the population voted in a referendum for the independence of Macedonia. 11/19/1991: Macedonia declared its independence. It presented a flag that is a symbol for all of Macedonia and thus provoked Greece. These also had an area of Macedonia. Greece responded with an economic boycott of the new republic, which plunged it into an economic crisis.

In 1993 Macedonia was admitted to the United Nations as the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Greece refused to accept the name Republic of Macedonia. 1994: After Macedonia changed its flag and thus the symbol for a whole Macedonia, Greece lifted its boycott.

2001: Rebels of the Albanian minority who call themselves the National Liberation Army (UÇK) fought for more rights. A NATO mission ended the fighting. After that, NATO stayed in the country for peacekeeping measures, such as disarming the rebels. Under international pressure, especially from the EU, a peace agreement was signed in Skopje. In it, the Albanians were given more rights. 15.9./1.11. In 2002 parliamentary elections were held and a new government under Branko Cryenkovski was elected.

Macedonia Facts