Luxembourg – One of the smallest countries
Luxembourg, one of the smallest countries in Europe, played and still plays an extremely important role in the process of creating the European Union. As the seat of the EU Council of Ministers, which meets here a quarter of the year, the European Court of Justice, the EU Commission, the European Investment Bank and the European Court of Auditors, the small country was able to secure important institutions.
But the radio station “Radio Luxemburg” for popular music since the 50s gave the country a great reputation.
With Frank Elstner, Dieter Thomas Heck, Thomas Gottschalk and others, presenters were and are active for the station, who enjoy a high reputation in the German-speaking area. For a few months in 1945, the RTL broadcasting systems served the “voice of America” in the democratization of Germany.
In the meantime, around 130,000 people from the surrounding countries come to the country as commuters – but mostly to Luxembourg City. In addition, around 160 banks have branches in the country, which was and is very helpful in helping the country from transitioning from a steel metropolis to a European financial services center. Gourmets may be interested in the fact that there are a disproportionately large number of “Michelin-starred restaurants” with top cuisine in Luxembourg.
From March 1, 2020, Luxembourg will be the first country in the world where bus and train travel is free. Only 1st class trains remain chargeable.
|Name of the country||Grand Duchy of Luxembourg|
|Form of government||Constitutional monarchy as parliamentary democracy|
|Head of state||Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg (Henry I), since October 7, 2000|
|Geographical location||Western Europe|
|National anthem||Ons Heemecht (“Our Home”)|
|Population||approx. 576,000 (including approx. 307,000 Luxembourgers) (Credit: Countryaah: Luxembourg Population)|
|Ethnicities||approx.90,000 Portuguese, 41,700 French, 40,000 Italian, 19,400 Belgians, 11,600 Germans,there are also numerous commuters|
|Religions||Roman Catholic (approx. 98%), Protestant (approx. 1%), Jews (approx. 0.25%) and Muslims (approx. 0.1%)|
|Languages||Lëtzebuergeschofficial language also French and German|
|Capital||Luxembourg, the city is one of the three capitals of the EU alongside Brussels and Strasbourg|
|Surface||2,586 km², around 85% of which is arable la|
|Highest mountain||Burrigplatz in Huldange with a height of 560 m|
|Longest river||Moselle with a total length of 544 km,36 km of which as a border river between Luxembourg and Germany|
|Largest lake||Echternach lake with an area of 0.35 km²|
|Difference to CET||= CET|
|International phone code||00352|
|Mains voltage, frequency||230 volts, 50 hertz|
|Internet Top Level Domain (TLD)||.lu|
|International license plate||L.|
Until around the year 1000
The first traces of settlement by the Celtic tribe go back to the second century BC. During the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar (100 BC to 44) between 58 – 51 BC. the present-day area of Luxembourg was also incorporated into the Roman Empire. The fall of the Roman Empire went hand in hand with the colonization of Gaul by the Franks (from the 5th century). Gradual Christianization began. The Echternach monastery was founded in 698 by the missionary Willibrord (658 – 739), who was born in England.
From the year 1000 to the 18th century
According to Abbreviationfinder website, with the establishment of the city and county of Luxembourg by Siegfried in 963, the foundation stone of the House of Luxembourg was laid. The original name “Lucilinburhuc” for the castle square on the Alzette, which was probably already inhabited by the Romans, can still be found in today’s word. Five German emperors emerged from this family, Heinrich VII. (1308), Charles IV. (1346), Wenceslaus I (1376), Jobst v. Moravia (1410), Sigismund (1410). In 1354 the county was upgraded to a duchy, which still exists today. From 1482 to 1659 the country belonged to the Habsburgs, namely the Spanish line, until it fell to France as part of the first division of Luxembourg. As part of the unification, Luxembourg became completely French from 1684 to 1697, to fall to the Austrian Netherlands (not yet established Belgium) after the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713. In the course of the French Revolution and Napoleon, Luxembourg was again part of France from 1795 to 1814.
The 19th century to 1914
The Congress of Vienna, with its reorganization of Europe after Napoleon, declared the country an independent Grand Duchy, which was, however, linked in personal union with the German Confederation and the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Following the Belgian Revolution of 1830, the Walloon parts of the country were ceded to Belgium in 1839. During the so-called “Luxembourg Crisis” Napoleon II tried to buy the land, but this led to the declaration of neutrality in the Treaty of London (1866). Luxembourg remained a member of the German Customs Union until 1919. After the Dutch line became extinct, the government fell to the House of Nassau-Weilburg in 1890, whose grand dukes still run the country today.
From the First World War to the present
During the First World War (1914-18), Luxembourg was occupied by the troops of the German Empire. The same thing happened during the Second World War (1939-45) and even led to the formal annexation by the Third Reich in 1942. The country suffered greatly from the occupation, which wanted to enforce Germanization. Internal resistance was so great that there was even a general strike against the forced recruitment. The suppression of the language led to “Lëtzebuergesch” becoming a national symbol. The country suffered great damage from the effects of the fighting, especially during the Ardennes offensive in the winter of 1944.
The customs and economic union, which had existed since 1922, was extended to the Netherlands after the Second World War. This resulted in the Benelux countries. In 1952, Luxembourg became the seat of the Coal and Steel Community, the predecessor of the European Economic Union (EEC).
As a founding member of today’s European Union (EU), it is now the seat of the Council of Ministers, the Commission, the Court of Auditors, the Court of Justice and the Investment Bank of the EU, and thus plays a prominent role in the development and further development of the European idea.