Kuwait – One of the smallest states in the world
Kuwait is one of the smallest, but one of the wealthiest countries in the world. The country is located in one of the driest and hottest areas on earth, in summer the temperatures rise to 50 degrees. The emirate is located on the northwestern tip of the Persian Gulf and, like the other Gulf states, owes its wealth to oil, which has been produced in Kuwait since the 1930s.
With ” Madīnat al-Kuwait “, the emirate of Kuwait has one of the richest capitals on earth. The immense oil reserves are mainly responsible for this. The main customers are the USA. The revenues from the oil sector are billions and give the country and Kuwait City an incomparable luxury. But the emirate is aware of the fact that the oil reserves can only ensure wealth for a limited time; therefore, those responsible are already making wise provisions for the post-oil period.
|Name of the country||State of Kuwait”Daulat Al-Kuwait”|
|Form of government||Islamic Hereditary Monarchy (Emirate)|
|Geographical location||Northwest end of the Persian Gulf|
|National anthem||an-Nashid al-watani|
|Population||approx. 3.6 million (Credit: Countryaah: Kuwait Population)|
|Ethnicities||approx. 1 million Kuwait andapprox. 2 million foreigners (mainly Arabs and Indians)|
|Religions||Mainly Islam (65% Sunnis, 35% Shiites)as well as some Christians and Hindus|
|Languages||Arabic and English as business languages|
|Highest mountain||Mount Catherine with a height of 2,637 m Ash Shakaya with a height of 290 m|
|International license plate||KWT|
|National currency||Kuwaiti dinar|
|Time difference to CET||+ 2h|
|International phone code||+ 965|
|Mains voltage, frequency||230 volts and 50 hertz|
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)||.kw|
Before the year 1000
The area of today’s Kuwait was already around 2,000 BC. Settled. This is evidenced by excavations in the region.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
According to Abbreviationfinder website, from the 7th century the area of today’s Kuwait belonged to the Abbasid Caliphate and was Islamized.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
The origin of today’s state of Kuwait goes back to the 18th century. The Anaiza tribe, a Bedouin tribe from Arabia, settled on the coast of the Persian Gulf and founded a small settlement there. In 1756 Sabah I of the Anaiza tribe was appointed Sheikh of Kuwait, thus establishing the dynasty that still ruled Kuwait today. Due to unrest in southern and inner Arabia, he managed to make Kuwait independent and independent of the rule of the Bani Khalid family, who held power in the Al-Hasa province. Kuwait flourished quickly. It was a trading post for caravans to Inner Arabia and for shipping in the Persian Gulf.
In 1829 Kuwait recognized the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire and in 1899 a protection treaty with Great Britain. When the First World War broke out, Kuwait became a British protectorate. In terms of foreign policy, the country was ruled by the British government in India, but domestically, the sheikh became the absolute ruler.
In the 20th century
In 1934, Sheikh Ahmed, with the approval of the British government, granted a concession to the exploration and production of oil to a British-American consortium, from which the Kuwait Oil Company emerged in 1951. Kuwait became a co-founder of OPEC in 1960. In 1963 Kuwait joined the United Nations.
When the British protectorate was lifted in 1961, Kuwait gained its independence. The emir, formerly known as the sheikh, was forced to form a parliament, which, however, had only very few powers. In 1976 the emir dissolved parliament and suspended new elections. A new parliament only met in 1982. But this parliament was also dissolved again in 1986 by the emir. Domestically, an economic and political crisis came to a head in Kuwait. The domestic economy collapsed almost completely in the early 1980s, oil prices fell dramatically and the state was hit hard by bomb attacks on oil plants, pipelines and ships.
In terms of foreign policy, there were repeated border disputes between Iraq and Kuwait in the 1960s and 1970s. While Kuwait was still on the side of Iraq between Iran and Iraq in the First Gulf War, Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait in 1990, which led to the Second Gulf War in 1991, and occupied the country. The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops forced the emir to emigrate to Saudi Arabia. In 1991, Kuwait was liberated by international forces under the leadership of the USA. In 1994 Iraq recognized the borders with Kuwait established by the United Nations.
After the emir returned to Kuwait in the same year, the emir allowed re-election in 1992. In 1996, the second parliament came into force after the country was liberated. The domestic political situation in Kuwait has stabilized.
At the end of 2002, northern Kuwait became the main base for American and British troops during Operation Enduring Freedom against Iraq. Bundeswehr troops were also stationed in Kuwait.
Women’s suffrage was introduced in Kuwait in 2005.