Kazakhstan Facts

Kazakhstan Facts and History


Kazakhstan is one of the countries that became independent after the collapse of the Soviet Union – on December 16, 1991.

The country has numerous mineral resources such as coal, iron ores, lead, copper, zinc, tungsten, silver, barium, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, gold, chromium, manganese and bauxite, the basic material for aluminum production.

But above all, the country in and on the Caspian Sea (371,000 km²) has large reserves of oil and natural gas.

In addition, the country’s landscape is partly of unique beauty. The country also has a lot to offer culturally. A visit to the country – and especially its cities of Almaty and the capital Astana – is really highly recommended.

Name of the country Republic of Kazakhstan
Form of government republic
Geographical location State in Central Asia with borders to: China, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
National anthem Zharalghan namystan qaharman
Population Around 16.8 million (Credit: Countryaah: Kazakhstan Population)
Ethnicities Only around 54% are Kazakhs, around 30% are Russians, around 5% are Ukrainians, and around 2% are Kazakhstan-Germans
Religions Muslim approx. 47%, Russian Orthodox approx. 44%, Protestants approx. 2%
Languages Kazakh and Russian
Capital previouslyrenamed Astana with around 815,000 residents to Nursultan in March 2019
National currency Tenge (KZT) = 100 Tiyn
Surface 2,724,900 km² (ninth largest country on earth)
Highest mountain Pik Chan-Tengi with a height of around 6,995 m
Longest river The Irtysh River with a length of around 4,250 km
Largest lake Aral Sea (northern half, total size currently still approx. 32,0000 km²
International license plate concentration camp
Time difference to CET + 3 h to + 4 h
Internet TLD (Top Level Domain) .concentration camp

Kazakhstan Historical overview

The territory of today’s Kazakhstan has been settled since ancient times. Already in the Stone Age and later in the Bronze Age, tribes lived here who farmed and raised cattle. In the 6th – 8th centuries BC The Scythians created a first state-like association in the so-called Siebenstromland (Southeast Kazakhstan).

According to Abbreviationfinder website, various Turkic tribes settled here from the 6th century to the 13th century AD. During this period, important cities such as Taras, Otrar, Ispidshab and Talchir were founded along the Great Silk Road, which connected Asia with Europe.

In the 13th century AD Kazakhstan was overrun by the Mongol hordes of Genghis Khan and incorporated into his vast empire. In the 14./15. In the 19th century, the Uzbek and Kazakh khanates (khanate = domain of a khan) emerged. The election of Sultan Kerei-Khan as regent of the Kazakhs in 1456 marks the beginning of the statehood of Kazakhstan.


From the middle of the 18th century, Kazakh regents and tribal leaders increasingly took on Russian citizenship, submitting themselves and their subjects to tsarist rule. In the first half of the 19th century Kazakhstan was fully incorporated into the tsarist empire.

After the abolition of serfdom in Russia, the massive resettlement of Russians to Kazakhstan began in the 1860s. Around 1.5 million Russian farmers were settled here.

The industrial development of Kazakhstan began at the beginning of the 20th century with the development of mining (coal, ore and gold extraction).

After the October Revolution, the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Republic was formed on August 26, 1920 in the northern and central parts of Kazakhstan. In 1924/25 the southern part of Kazakhstan was added and the republic was renamed the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Republic.

Before and during World War II, Germans, Poles, Greeks, Chechens, Ingush and other nationalities were deported to Kazakhstan from the Soviet Union, and numerous Russians were evacuated.

In the course of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh Soviet Republic adopted the declaration of the independence of Kazakhstan on October 25, 1990. On December 16, 1991 the “Law on the State Independence of Kazakhstan” was passed.

Since 1990 Nursultan Äbischuly Nazarbayev (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan) has been the first and so far only President of the country.

In 1997, Astana was established as the country’s new modern capital.

Kazakhstan Facts