Jordan History

Jordan History


Jordanian history dates back to the Lower Paleolithic. Much of what is now Jordanian territory was annexed to the kingdom of Israel by Kings David and Solomon around 1000 BC. n. and. Between the 7th and 16th centuries, the country fell under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.

During the First World War (1914-1918) he was liberated from the Turks by Anglo- Arab troops.

  • 1920-1923 part of the British Mandate of Palestine
  • 1923-1946 Emirate of Transjordan

Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan (1946-1949)

  • On March 22, 1946, he is independent.
  • Abdullah I (March 30, 1921 – July 20, 1951).
  • In October 1948, during the first Arab-Israeli war, Judea and Samaria invaded what would be called the West Bank.

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (since 1949)

  • Proclaimed April 3, 1949.
  • On April 24, 1950, the West Bank and East Jerusalem were annexed, ignoring the rights of the Arab-Palestinians, and the neutral zone dictated by the UN in the partition.
  • On July 20, 1951, he was assassinated by a Palestinian Arab, when he was in the Al-Aqsa Mosque, called Naif ibn Abdullah regent.

Talal I (September 5, 1951 – August 11, 1952), son of the former.

  • The 1952 Constitution is approved, and the Jordanian parliament or “Majlis al-Umma” is approved.
  • Hussein I (August 11, 1952 – February 7, 1999), son of the former.
  • With only sixteen years he is proclaimed king.
  • From February 14 to July 14, 1958, federation with Iraq.
  • Meanwhile, Arab-Palestinian nationalism was germinating in the refugee camps of the West Bank. In 1959 the “fedayin” (martyrs) were transformed into the National Palestine Liberation Movement, ” Al-Fatah ” La Reconquista.
  • In 1963 a “unified Palestinian entity” was created with the approval of the Council of the Arab League, to which Jordan objected, fearing losing its sovereignty over the West Bank.
  • In 1964, Palestinian groups unanimously granted the PLO (Organization for the Liberation of Palestine) their legitimate representation of the Palestinians to the world. The PLO, financed by the Arab League, formed a Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA).
  • On June 6/12, 1967, Israel, in the six-day war, conquers the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
  • In 1973, he symbolically took part in the Arab-Israeli war, sending a military contingent to the Golan Heights.
  • In 1980 Jordan actively supported Iraq in the war with Iran.
  • In 1986, Arafat closed the offices of “Al-Fatah” in Jordan.
  • On July 31, 1988 Hussein renounced control over the West Bank and recognized the establishment of the Independent State of Palestine, proclaimed by the PLO, was the only valid representative of the Palestinian people. He also renounced violence as a method, thereby predisposing the United States to open dialogue. Israel should negotiate directly with the PLO and the Jordanian intervention would lose importance.
  • On November 15, 1988, the PLO proclaimed the establishment of the independent state of Palestine, tacitly recognizing (by passing UN Council Resolution 242 as the basis for a peace agreement) Israel.
  • In 1989, serious disturbances led by the Jordanian people themselves and Bedouin tribes, without Palestinian intervention, as a result of the severe economic measures approved by the government. In November, King Hussein announced the formation of a royal commission, one of whose purposes was to study the future legalization of political parties. Jordan was able to partially rebuild its dwindling dollar reserves thanks to financial aid from the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf (especially Saudi Arabia).
  • The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait (August of 1990) placed Jordan in a difficult situation, aggravated by the embargo against Iraq decreed by the UN. Iraq was Jordan’s main trading partner, depending almost exclusively on Iraqi oil supplies. King Hussein condemned the invasion of Kuwait, but remained, throughout the conflict, a strong supporter of an Arab solution. The majority of the Jordanian population supported Saddam Hussein. Jordan received almost half a million refugees (mostly Jordanians), who fled from Iraq and the gulf region. Hussein’s attitude deteriorated the country’s ties with Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The Jordanian monarch finally abandoned the position that he had maintained throughout the conflict, that is, a solution that would negotiate the Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait with the rights of the Palestinians in the Middle East.
  • In late February of 1991, when military anti-Iraqi coalition launched its ground offensive to expel Kuwait troops Baghdad, Hussein of Jordan condemned the operation and called for an immediate cease-fuego. In November 1991, Jordan participated in Madrid at the Middle East Peace Conference, supporting the request of the Palestinian delegation, consisting of the creation of a Palestinian state in the occupied territories.
  • In 1994 the peace agreement with Israel was made and in 1999 Hussein I died and his son Abdullah II succeeded him.

Recent history

As a country located in Middle East according to COUNTRYVV.COM, Jordan, like the rest of the Arab world, was shocked by the wave of anti-government protests in early 2011, known as the Arab Spring, which led to the fall of the governments of Tunisia and Egypt and a bloody civil war in Libya. King Abdullah II proposed the creation of a National Dialogue Table, which was opposed by the Islamist opposition, who met on March 11, in number of several hundred in Zarka, in the north of the country, to demand political reforms [1] .

They support the United States in its war against the Islamic State, which took its pilot Muaz Kasasbeh (who was burned alive in January 2015), after which they executed the terrorists Sajida al Rishawi and Ziad Arbuli of Al Qaeda. [2] , which in 2005 killed more than 60 civilians in three suicide attacks on luxury hotels in Amman. [3]

Jordan History