Establishment of the new democratic Hungary (1989-2005)
The Hungarian Democratic Forum (Hungarian abbreviation MDF) was founded on September 27, 1987. Other parties emerged in 1988/89, including the Bund Free Democrats (SzDSz; founded on November 13, 1988), the Independent Party of Small Farmers, Agricultural Workers and Citizens (FKgP, re-established on November 18, 1988) and the Christian Democratic People’s Party (KDNP, founded on November 11, 1988). 5. 1989). In January 1989 the USAP renounced its constitutionally guaranteed leadership role in state and society. On June 26, 1989, Nyers (again a member of the Politburo since 1988) replaced Grósz as party president.
Under the easing pressure of the collapsing Eastern Bloc, Hungarian foreign policy turned more towards the western states. The dismantling of the barriers on the Austro-Hungarian border, which began on May 2, 1989, led to an unprecedented wave of refugees in summer (e.g. Sopron) and early autumn 1989. a. young GDR citizen. Foreign Minister G. Horn opened the border for GDR citizens on September 11, 1989 to allow them to travel freely. The associated severe political upheavals ultimately triggered the far-reaching social upheaval in the GDR and all of Eastern Europe (up to and including the restoration of German state unity on October 3, 1990). As a result of the self-dissolution of the USAP (October 7/8, 1989), a. the (social democratic) Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP). On October 23, 1989, the parliament changed the state name to the Republic of Hungary; on March 10, 1990, the complete withdrawal of Soviet troops by the end of June 1991 was agreed (realized by June 17, 1991).
According to zipcodesexplorer, the first free elections since 1947 on March 25 and April 8, 1990 were won by the MDF (47.7% of the vote; 164 MPs); On May 23, 1990, J. Antall (MDF; successor from December 21, 1993: Péter Boross [* 1928]) became Prime Minister of a coalition government of MDF, FKgP and KDNP. On March 2, 1990 the parliament elected Á. Göncz (SzDSz) as its President, on August 3, 1990 as President (confirmed on June 19, 1995 for a further five years; in office until August 2000).
Due to the reforms carried out from 1988 to 1990, the political system change was quickly implemented and constitutionally and legally secured, the economic difficulties reduced and the transformation process initiated. In April 1994 the parliament approved a land law, according to which Hungarian citizens can acquire a maximum of 300 hectares of land. According to the Minorities Act of July 7, 1993, a system of self-administration for national and ethnic minorities was established at local and state level from 1994 onwards. In the parliamentary elections from 8./29. 5. In 1994 the previously in opposition MSzP won an absolute majority; the second strongest party was the SzDSz; the previously ruling MDF fell back to third place. Horn (MSzP) on July 15, 1994 Prime Minister; he was able to initiate a stabilization of the economy and domestic political calming down.
The elections on 10/24 5. 1998 saw a change of power with the victory of the right-wing liberal FIDESz (38% of the vote; 148 mandates); V. Orbán was elected as the new Prime Minister of a national liberal coalition of FIDESz, FKgP and MDF on July 6, 1998.
On June 6, 2000, F. Mádl was elected as the new President (in office: August 4, 2000).
After the elections in April 2002, a social-liberal coalition of MSzP and SzDSz came into being under Prime Minister M. Medgyessy (non-party; as MSzP candidate). After a coalition crisis in August 2004, Medgyessy resigned and F. Gyurcsańy(MSzP) was elected as the new Prime Minister on September 29, 2004. In June 2005 the parliament elected the candidate of the bourgeois opposition parties FIDESz – MPSZ and MDF L. Sólyom as Mádl’s successor in the office of president.
Pécs [pe ː t ʃ ], German Fünfkirchen, largest city in Transdanubia, in southwest Hungary, on the southern slope of the Mecsek Mountains, (2018) 144 200 residents.
Baranya District Administrative Headquarters. Pécs is a Catholic bishopric, the oldest university town in Hungary (first university founded in 1367, re-founded 1921, opened 1923) with a medical university (1951-2000 independent), has several museums (including ethnographic museum, Zsolnay museum, Vasarély museum), national theater and a Botanical Garden. Regional economic center, electrotechnical, chemical, porcelain, food and luxury food industry, leather processing, brewery; In the Mecsek Mountains, hard coal mining was carried out and uranium ore was mined, mining was stopped in the 1990s, since then there has been strong economic structural change, settlement of new businesses (electronics); intensive arable, fruit, wine and vegetable growing in the very fertile surrounding area; in the region thermal and medicinal baths.
Early Christian grave chambers from the 4th century adorned with frescoes were uncovered on Domplatz in 1783 (UNESCO World Heritage Site); Significant buildings are the St. Peter’s Cathedral (originally 11th-12th centuries, restored several times, especially in the 19th century), a three-aisled basilica with four towers and a five-aisled crypt (Romanesque components in the lapidary on Cathedral Square), on Széchenyi Square (with Baroque Trinity Column) the inner-city parish church of St. Mary (a mosque from the 16th century, converted into a baroque church in 1766/67), furthermore an octagonal Turkish grave building of Idris Baba (1591) and a former mosque of Jakowali Hassan (square domed building with minaret, 16th century). Century).
Pécs, which goes back to the Roman city of Sopianis (Sopianiae), was first referred to as Quinque Ecclesiae in the 9th century as one of the main places of the Great Moravian Empire. Bishopric since 1009, Pécs was the largest Hungarian city and cultural center in the High and Late Middle Ages. Under Ottoman rule (1541–1687) the importance of the city declined; In 1780 Pécs was raised to the status of a royal Hungarian free city. Today Pécs is an important cultural center for the Hungarian Germans.