Yemen is located on the south-western tip of the Arabian Peninsula and
borders the Red Sea.
The state is the most populous country in the region and at the same time one of
the poorest countries in the Arab world. Oil is also produced in Yemen, but the
volume of production and thus also economic income is limited. The Islam is the
state religion in Yemen.
The culture of the country and daily life are therefore strongly influenced
by religion. After the country had been ruled by imams since 897, the Republic
of North Yemen was proclaimed in 1962.
South Yemen also followed in 1967 and proclaimed the People's Democratic
Republic. The two Yemen finally united in 1990 to form the Republic of Yemen. At
the moment there is a cruel civil war here.
|Name of the country
Republic of Yemen
|Form of government
||Parliamentary-controlled presidential system
||in the southwest of the Arabian Peninsula
||around 25 million (Credit:
||Arabs, besides a small minority of Europeans and Indians
||Islam as the official state religion
An insignificant number of Christians of approx. 0.1%
||Sana'a with approx. 2.6 million residents
||Nabi Schuayb with a height of 3,660 m
|International license plate
||YR (Yemen Republic)
|Time difference to CET
||+ 2 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||220 volts, 50 hertz
|Internet Top Level Domain (TLD)
Before the year 1000
The earliest settlements in Yemen date from 8,000 to 6,000 BC. A total of six
ancient kingdoms are known in what is now Yemen. The most important of these is
undoubtedly the Kingdom of Saba, which is mentioned several times in the Old
Testament and dates from around 2,000 BC. Existed until 260 AD. The five other
kingdoms in the region are named Ma'in (approx. 700 - approx. 50 BC), Aussan
(until approx. 450 BC), Kataban (approx. 600 BC - approx. 150 AD), Hadramaut
(4th century BC - approx. 220 AD) and Himjar (approx. 100 BC - approx. 525 AD).
Abbreviationfinder website, in 628, the Sassanid governor of Yemen converted to Islam, which started the
Islamization of the area.
Yemen was ruled by Umayyad governors from Sana'a from 660 to 750. In the period
from 750 to 847 the Abbasids ruled the area, who were driven out by the
Ju'firids in 847. This ruling family founded the first Yemeni dynasty in Islamic
times. However, Yemen has rarely been a single political entity. Various Yemeni
tribes strongly influenced the political events of the country under the
respective central power until the 20th century.
In a conflict between two tribes in the north of the country in 896, the Zaidite
imam Yachya al Hadi acted as mediator. This was so successful in the arbitration
that the North Yemeni tribes adopted the Zaidi-Islamic faith and recognized him
as a religious and secular leader. Yachya al Hadi was the first of 65 Zaidi
imams in Yemen who ruled until the 20th century.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
In 1324, the Zaidi tribes from northern Yemen took Sana'a and made the city
the capital of Yemen, ruled by the Zaidite imam. In 1454 the south of the
country could also be conquered by the Zaidites.
In addition to the Zaidis, the Fatimids (from 900-916 and 1037 to 1138), the
Ajiubids (from 1173-1228), the Rassulids (from 1228-1455), the Mamelukes (from
1515-1517) and the Ottomans (from 1537-1636). However, the Zaidite imams were
always able to prevail against the other rulers.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
In 1803 the Wahhabis occupied parts of Yemen. Thereupon the Zaidite imam
called in 1826 the Mamelukes for help. The Wahhabis could be driven out, but the
Mamelukes now occupied the area.
In 1839 England occupied southern Yemen with Aden, while the region of Tihama
and the area between Tiaz and Sana'a was taken by the Ottomans. In 1905 the
English and Ottomans jointly determined the border through Yemen.
In the 20th century
During the Anglo-Ottoman occupation, the Zaidite imams ruled only in the
country's northern provinces. In the Da'an Agreement of 1911, the Ottomans
recognized the Zaidite rule in northern Yemen as well as in Menaacha and
Tiaz. With the defeat in World War I, the Ottoman occupation in Yemen ended
entirely. In 1923, in the Treaty of Lausanne, the victorious powers of World War
I recognized the imam as the secular head of North Yemen. In 1926 the imam took
on the title of king.
The Zaidi North Yemen fought against the British occupation in the south of the
country from 1926, but had to bow in 1928 and finally recognized the border with
South Yemen in a peace treaty in 1934, which was under British occupation until
1967. In the same year, North Yemen attacked Saudi Arabia, but also had to admit
defeat in this fight. The border issue between North Yemen and Saudi Arabiacould
only be settled in 2000. Over the years, North Yemen has isolated itself
completely from world politics. Foreigners were not allowed to enter North
Yemen, and Yemeni nationals were not allowed to leave. Apart from Egypt and
Saudi Arabia, there were no diplomatic relations with any other country. In the
period up to 1962, the situation for the country's population
deteriorated. Opposition forces germinated. In 1961, the ruling imam narrowly
escaped an assassination attempt and then passed political power to his son. But
as early as 1962 there was a military coup against the new imam. In a seven-year
civil war, the Republicans were able to prevail. In 1969 the first parliament of
the new republic met.
In 1970 there was a border war with South Yemen, which had since become
independent from Great Britain. After the armistice between the two states,
negotiations for unification began. But it was not until May 1990 that both
parts of Yemen were united to form the Republic of Yemen with the capital
Sana'a. In 1994, South Yemen tried again to isolate itself, which led to the
invasion of North Yemeni troops in the south of the country. The national unity
could, however, be preserved. In the same year, Sharia, as the Islamic legal
system, became the source of all legislation in Yemen. Since the end of the
1990s, the political situation in Yemen has stabilized and the situation for the
population has improved.