Uganda - East Africa's Venice
In Uganda, the East African savannah meets the West African jungle.
The country does not border any ocean, but there is still enough water, as one
sixth of the area of Uganda is covered by inland waters, including the
northern part of Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa. In addition, there
are the world-famous Murchison waterfalls in this country, where the water of
the Victorianil falls around 40 m through a 10 m wide gorge. The rich moisture
also creates wetlands, wet savannahs and tropical rainforests, which are home to
unique ecosystems and the most biodiverse animal populations in South Africa. No
fewer than ten national parks are to be visited in Uganda.
The country is one of the most densely populated countries in Africa. Most
of the population lives in the fertile areas around Lake Victoria. The main
economic sector in Uganda is coffee growing.
A difficult security situation due to rebellions and border conflicts with
neighboring countries and the fatal consequences of AIDS, which Uganda is
particularly hard hit by, are troubling the country. In recent years, at least
the latter problem has been somewhat mitigated, i.e. the AIDS rate has been
significantly reduced. In terms of gross national product, Uganda is one of the
poorest countries in Africa. In June 2005 it benefited from the debt relief
approved by the finance ministers of the G8 countries. It remains to be seen
whether the new financial resources will actually benefit the population.
|Name of the country
||Republic of Uganda
|Form of government
||East Africa, on the equator
||Oh Uganda, land of the beauty
||October 9 (independence October 9, 1962)
||about 44 million (Credit:
||98% African tribes (Bantu peoples, Nilotes, etc.)
||40% Catholics, 32% Anglicans, 14% Pentecostals and approx. 14%
||English, Swahili, Bantu, Luanda
||Kampala with approx. 2 million residents
||Peak Margherita with a height of 5,110 m
||White Nile with a length of 3,700 km
||Lake Victoria with an area of 62,940 km²
|International license plate
||valid passport, visa requirements change
a possibly required visa
is available at the airport or national borders
Yellow fever vaccination certificate is mandatory
|Time difference to CET
||+ 2 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||240 volts and 50 hertz
(an adapter is recommended.)
|Internet TDL (Top Level Domain)
Uganda until around the year 1000
The area of Uganda and its neighboring states is considered by many
anthropologists to be the "cradle of humanity" due to numerous fossil finds from
the Great Rift Valley. The first residents were probably pygmies who lived as
hunters and gatherers in the area, which was then covered by rainforests. About
2,000 years ago these tribes were pushed back by the immigration of Kushite
pastoral peoples from the north and later by agricultural Bantu peoples. From
the 9th century, larger Bantu communities developed in the region. Later there
was an overlay with the ranching culture of the immigrant Hima, who took over
the management of the communities.
Uganda from the year 1000 to the 18th century
Abbreviationfinder website, the Kingdom of Kitara existed in the 14th and 15th centuries. From around the
15th century, the kingdom of Bunyoro, founded by Nilotic shepherds, developed in
the west of what is now Uganda on Lake Albert. From the 17th century onwards,
the Buganda Empire gained increasing influence on the north-west bank of Lake
Victoria through raids and ivory trade. In the 18th century, it gained supremacy
over Bunyoro and became the most important Ugandan kingdom. Smaller empires were
Ankole in the southwest, Busoga in the southeast and the intervening Toro, a
former province of Bunyoros. Both Buganda and the smaller empires maintained
trade relations with the Arabs, which resulted in the Islamization of individual
regions. Simple Nilotic tribal societies settled in the less fertile north of
what is now Uganda.
Uganda in the 19th century
In the 19th century, Arabs from the east coast of Africa began trading ivory
and slaves in the area north of Lake Victoria.
In the middle of the 19th century, the two British researchers JH Speke and
JA Grant discovered the source of the Nile. In the 1860s and 1870s, the Egyptian
Khedives invaded the north of the country. At the end of the 19th century,
Anglican and Catholic missionaries came to Uganda at the invitation of the
Kabaka (King of Buganda). The Kabaka converted to Christianity to counter the
growing Islamic influence. The arrival of the Europeans resulted in a rapid
destabilization of the Bugandi ruling system.
In the Congo Conference 1884/1885, claims made by Great Britain on Uganda
were recognized by the participants (only representatives of European
countries). According to the Helgoland-Zanzibar Treaty, it belonged to Kenya and
British East Africa.
After the new, Islamic King Mwanga II had the English bishop executed in
1885, there were bloody conflicts between 1887 and 1894. In 1980 he signed a
British protection agreement. In the following years the British subjugated the
kingdoms of Bunyoro and Toro as well as the Acholi area in the north, while
Busoga and Ankole granted the supremacy of the British by signing treaties.
In 1896 the Protectorate of Uganda was proclaimed.
In 1897 the British put down a revolt by Nubian-Egyptian troops. Colonial
agriculture was limited to the cultivation of export goods such as cotton and
coffee. The replacement of traditional crops with export-oriented monocultures
led to several famines in the country. Since the land had been largely divided
among Bugandian nobles (chiefs), the number of European settlers in Uganda
remained extremely small.
After the country had been partially opened up, not least through the
construction of the railroad, numerous Asians, especially Indians, emigrated to
Uganda, who, along with the British, took over national trade.
20th century until today
Political organizations of the black population began as early as 1915. In
1944/1945 the first concessions to the Africans were obtained through a general
strike. In the 1950s and 1960s, under the Kabaka Mutesa II, the hegemony efforts
of the Buganda sub-area intensified. From the elections in March 1961, Kiwanuka
emerged as Uganda's first native head of government. In May 1962, Apollo Milton
Obote (1924-2005) became the country's head of government and led it to
independence within the Commonwealth. On October 9, 1963, Uganda left the
Commonwealth and became a republic. The Kabaka Mutesa II received the office of
In 1964, Obote began nationalizing the economy. After Parliament voted for
Obote's dismissal in 1966, the latter suspended the constitution and dismissed
five ministers. With the new constitution, the traditional kingdoms of Uganda
were abolished and the area of the former kingdom of Buganda was divided into
several districts. Obote made himself president and head of government in one
person and began to establish a socialist, centralized, unitary state. To
prevent a secession of Buganda, he carried out a military attack on Buganda and
stormed the royal palace, Mutesa fled to Great Britain.
In terms of foreign policy, the following happened: Obote founded the East
African Community with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda also supported the Anyanya
rebels in South Sudan.
In 1971 Obote was overthrown by the military chief Idi Amin (1928-2003), who
established a military dictatorship in the country and ruthlessly persecuted
political opponents. The number of victims by 1979 is estimated to be at least a
quarter of a million. In addition, around 60,000 Asians were expelled from the
country. In terms of foreign policy, there was a connection to the Arab
countries, especially Libya. An attempted invasion by Obote of Tanzania in 1972
resulted in the bombing of targets in Tanzania.
In 1976, Amin declared himself president for life. His policies prompted a US
After mutinous troops fled to Tanzania in 1978, Amin occupied part of Tanzanian
territory with numerous massacres of civilians. In the same year Tanzanian
troops invaded southern Uganda. With the help of the Ugandan underground
fighters of the UNLF, Amin was overthrown in Kampala in April 1979. Subsequent
looting by marauding soldiers devastated large parts of the country. The UNLF
installed president was replaced shortly after by Godfrey Binaisa, who in turn
was overthrown by the military in 1980.
In the December 10 elections, Obote was declared the winner. Various
resistance groups formed in the country, including under Museveni, whose army
also recruited child soldiers. After an ongoing civil war that killed around
100,000 more people, a military coup took place in 1985. The army chief Tito
Okello became the new head of government. After a brief peace agreement, another
coup followed in 1986 after Yoweri Kaguta Museveni (born 1944) was sworn in as
head of state. However, the civil war between the various conflicting parties
In 1989 the first elections to a provisional parliament took place.
The symbolic restoration of the ancient kingdoms of Toro, Ankole, Bunyoro and
Buganda in 1993 earned Museveni great popularity. The new constitution of 1995
continued to prohibit the activity of political parties. In the democratic
election in May 1996, Museveni was elected with 75% of the vote.
In 1996 Uganda supported Kabila's takeover of power in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo out of economic interests. In the following years, gold
exports from Uganda, which has almost no gold itself, multiplied. Corruption
allegations led to the formation of a new government under Prime Minister Apolo
Nsimbambi in April 1999. In March 2001, Museveni was re-elected. The last
inauguration of Museveni took place on May 12, 2006.
In the north-west, conditions similar to civil war still prevail due to
regular raids from Sudan by LRA troops under J. Kony. In addition, in the Great
Lakes region between Uganda, Congo, Rwanda and Burundi, ongoing fighting between
Tutsi, Hutu, Lendu, Hema and other ethnic groups, rebels, armed gangs and
various government forces is taking place, with the main focus on control of the
economic ones Resources goes. Uganda is one of the few African countries that
has been able to drastically reduce its AIDS rate.
In October 2009 Charles Wesley Mumbere returned from his exile in the USA as
King (Omusinga) of Rwenzururu, a mountain region in the southwest of the
country. He had to leave the country in 1987 after the ban on royalty. The king
was able to return after President Yoweri Museveni had lifted the ban decision,
but the newly appointed king has no political power, but is supposed to preserve
the cultural heritage of his 300,000 subjects from the Bakonzo people.