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Montenegro

Montenegro - independent since 2006

On June 3, 2006, Montenegro declared its independence from Serbia, with which it had previously formed an association of states. The former part of Yugoslavia is currently aiming for membership in the UN, NATO and the EU as a new, independent state. The relatively small country on the Mediterranean Sea is criss-crossed by the Dinaric Mountains, which is what gave the country its name. Montenegro means "Black Mountain". Especially the very beautiful coastline on the Adriatic makes Montenegro an interesting travel destination.

Montenegro

Name of the country Republic of Montenegro
Form of government Parliamentary democracy
Head of state President, Filip Vujanović (since May 22, 2003)
Geographical location Southeast Europe/Balkans
National anthem Oj svijetla majska zoro
Population approx. 632,300 (Credit: Countryaah: Montenegro Population)
Ethnicities approx. 43% Montenegrins, 32% Serbs, 13% Bosniaks, 7% Albanians, 1% Croats as well as Roma and Sinti
Religions approx. 75% Serbian Orthodox, 3.5% Roman Catholic and 15% Muslim believers.
Languages Serbian
Capital Podgorica with approx. 144,000 residents
Surface 13,812 km²
Highest mountain Bobotov Kuk with a height of 2,523 m
Longest river Tare with a length of around 150 km
Largest lake in area Skadar Lake 391 km²
International license plate MNE
National currency Euro
Time difference to CET = CET
International phone code 00382
Mains voltage, frequency 220 volts, 50 hertz
Internet Top Level Domain (TLD) .me

Montenegro: history

Before the year 1000

Long before our era, the Illyrians and Celts inhabited the area that dates back to 300 BC. Was conquered by the Romans. In 395 AD the Roman Empire was divided and Serbia, and with it Montenegro, became Byzantine. In the 6th and 7th centuries the Slavic tribes immigrated to the Balkans.

According to Abbreviationfinder website, due to the Byzantine influence, the region became Christian.

From the year 1000 to the 17th century

In 1217, Stephen was crowned by the Pope and the first Serbian kingdom was founded, which also included the territory of Montenegro. Serbia experienced an upswing. In 1330 Serbia triumphed over the Bulgarians and became the strongest power in the region. In 1389 the battle took place on the blackbird field (Kosovo Polje), in which Serbia lost to the Ottomans. The Turkish rule began immediately and lasted until 1878. In the 15th century Serbia was divided between the Ottomans and Austria-Hungarians. From 1697, the office of hereditary prince prevailed in Montenegro. This went hand in hand with extensive independence from Serbia.

Montenegro: history

In the 18th and 19th centuries

In 1804 and 1815 there were two revolts against Turkish rule. After the second uprising under Prince Miloš Obrenovic (1783-1860), Serbia, and with it Montenegro, received its autonomy in 1817, although it remained tributary to the Ottomans. It got its own constitution and parliament. Miloš Obrenovic was the founder of the Obrenovic dynasty.

In 1878 the Berlin Congresses took place, in which Serbia and Montenegro finally became independent and formed two kingdoms.

In 1903, with Aleksandar Obrenovic (1876 to June 11, 1903), King of Serbia from 1889 to 1903, the Obrenovic dynasty ended. Aleksandar Obrenovic was murdered together with his wife Draga in the course of a conspiracy surrounding Dragutin Dimitrijevic (1877-1917) in June 1903. Dimitrijevic was also involved in the assassination attempt against the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand on June 28, 1914 in Sarajevo, which is known as the trigger for the First World War. Dimitrijevic was executed in 1917.

In the 20th century

On June 28, 1914, the assassination attempt on the Austrian heir to the throne Ferdinand took place in Sarajevo. As a result, Austria-Hungary annexed Serbia and the First World War was triggered. On December 1, 1918, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia formed the "Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes" after the end of the war. Montenegro was incorporated into the kingdom and lost its independence.

In 1929 this kingdom was renamed "Kingdom of Yugoslavia".

In 1941, Yugoslavia joined fascist Germany and Italy. This triggered a coup d'état, which caused Germany to invade Yugoslavia and divide it up between Italy, Bulgaria and Hungary. Only Croatia remained independent under the right-wing Ustaše movement. With the annexation, resistance began in the country through the communist people's liberation movement. In 1944 partisans under Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) and the Communist Party liberated the country with the help of Russian troops. The former kingdom was divided into republics.

In 1946 the constitution of the new "Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia" came into force under Tito. In it the country was divided into six republics (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia). Within Serbia, the two autonomous provinces Kosovo and Vojvodina also belonged to it. From 1945 to 1946 the country was initially called Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija) and from 1946 Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (Federativna Narodna Republika Jugoslavija). In 1963 the country was renamed again in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Socijalisticka Federativna Republika Jugoslavija).

In 1947 the national territory was re-established within its 1941 borders and expanded to include the Italian territories. In 1948 Tito broke away from the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia fell out of the Eastern Bloc. From 1950, Yugoslavia built a self-governing socialism that was independent of the Eastern Bloc. In 1953 Tito became President and campaigned for a unified Yugoslavia. In 1966-73, subliminal nationalist conflicts began in Kosovo and Croatia. In 1974 a new constitution was introduced that gave the republics more rights. In 1980 Tito died. With his death, nationalist conflicts arose again, especially on the part of the Albanians, who were demanding their own republic.

In 1986 Slobodan Miloševic (1941 - 2006) became party leader of the Communist Party of Serbia. His politics were strongly influenced by Serbian nationalism. In 1989 the autonomy status of Kosovo and Vojvodina was revoked, which fueled the ever-present conflict in Kosovo. In addition, Miloševic became President of Serbia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which existed from 1963 to 1991. In 1991 Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence. The war in Croatia began in September when the Serbs marched in from Montenegro.

In 1992 Bosnia-Herzegovina also declared its independence. The war now continued in Bosnia after Serbian troops attacked. It turned into an ethnic war that led to "acts of purge". On April 6th, the USA and the EU member states recognized the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina. As a result, on April 27, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was re-constituted, which now consisted of Serbia and Montenegro. In 1992 the republics of Serbia and Montenegro formed the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Savezna Republika Jugoslavija). From 05/30/1992 the UN imposed sanctions against Yugoslavia. In 1995 the Muslim enclaves were taken, which were actually protected areas of the UN. There were mass shootings in July and the Srebenica massacre, probably 8. 000 murdered Muslim youths and men. The UN force was under the command of Dutch soldiers who were completely helpless in the face of the war criminals and who failed to prevent the atrocities.

On the contrary, the picture of the Dutch commander, who was drinking champagne with the responsible Bosnian-Serbian general Ratko Mladic (born 1942) while the Muslims were already being transported away, went around the world. In August 1994, NATO launched an air raid on Bosnia. On December 14th, 1995 the Dayton Agreement was signed and with it the Declaration of Peace. However, KFOR soldiers remained stationed in Bosnia-Herzegovina. In 1996 the great flight of the Serbs from the Bosnian Sarajevo to Serbia began.

The UN sanctions against Serbia were lifted again. In 1997 Miloševic's term as President of Serbia ended and he became President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

In 1998 the conflict broke out openly in Kosovo. Its independence from 1992 was never recognized by the Serbs.

Serbian soldiers started an offensive. There were again massacres and ethnic cleansing, hundreds of thousands of Albanians fled to Albania or Macedonia.

After planned meetings failed, the UN launched air strikes on Serbia on March 24, 1999. Two and a half months later, Yugoslavia gave way on June 10, 1999, after which the air strikes were suspended. After mass protests, Slobodan Miloševic was forced to resign on October 5, 2000.

On 27 May 1999 he was extradited to the War Crimes Tribunal in The Hague on June 28, 2001 on charges of war crimes, genocide and crimes against humanity by the chief prosecutor of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Carla del Ponte.

He died there in his cell on March 11, 2006.

On October 7th, 2000 Vojislav Kostunica (born 1944) was elected as his successor as president. On December 25, 2000, the charismatic Zoran Djindjic (1952 - 2003) became Serbian Prime Minister. April 22nd, 2001 new elections took place in Montenegro. Filip Vujanovic (born 1954) remained Prime Minister.

In 2002 Serbia and Montenegro got a new constitution through mediation by the EU. On February 4th, 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was renamed Serbia and Montenegro. On March 12, 2003, the great hope for a democratic development of the country suffered a severe blow after the murder of Zoran Djindjic.

Svetozar Marovic (born 1955) has been the first head of state and government of Serbia and Montenegro since 2003.

His election took place on March 7, 2003. In 2004, after early elections, Boris Tadic (born 1958) became the new Serbian president. 2005 was the last constitutional amendment of the state of Serbia and Montenegro.

On May 21, 2006, a referendum on independence was held in Montenegro, which was ratified by a majority of 55% of the population. On June 3, the parliament of Montenegro proclaimed independence from Serbia. The new state was then recognized worldwide.

It should be of interest that Serbia-Montenegro competed as a joint national team at the 2006 Soccer World Cup in Germany after Montenegro declared independence.

 


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