Kazakhstan is one of the countries that became independent after the collapse
of the Soviet Union - on December 16, 1991.
The country has numerous mineral resources such as coal, iron ores, lead,
copper, zinc, tungsten, silver, barium, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, gold,
chromium, manganese and bauxite, the basic material for aluminum production.
But above all, the country in and on the Caspian Sea (371,000 km²) has large
reserves of oil and natural gas.
In addition, the country's landscape is partly of unique beauty. The country
also has a lot to offer culturally. A visit to the country - and especially its
cities of Almaty and the capital Astana - is really highly recommended.
|Name of the country
||Republic of Kazakhstan
|Form of government
||State in Central Asia with borders
to: China, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
||Zharalghan namystan qaharman
||Around 16.8 million (Credit:
||Only around 54% are Kazakhs, around 30% are Russians, around 5% are
Ukrainians, and around 2% are Kazakhstan-Germans
||Muslim approx. 47%, Russian Orthodox approx. 44%, Protestants
||Kazakh and Russian
renamed Astana with around 815,000 residents to Nursultan in March
||Tenge (KZT) = 100 Tiyn
||2,724,900 km² (ninth largest country on earth)
||Pik Chan-Tengi with a height of around 6,995 m
||The Irtysh River with a length of around 4,250 km
||Aral Sea (northern half, total size currently still approx. 32,0000
|International license plate
|Time difference to CET
||+ 3 h to + 4 h
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Kazakhstan Historical overview
The territory of today's Kazakhstan has been settled since ancient
times. Already in the Stone Age and later in the Bronze Age, tribes lived here
who farmed and raised cattle. In the 6th - 8th centuries BC The Scythians
created a first state-like association in the so-called Siebenstromland
Abbreviationfinder website, various Turkic tribes settled here from the 6th century to the 13th century
AD. During this period, important cities such as Taras, Otrar, Ispidshab and
Talchir were founded along the Great Silk Road, which connected Asia with
In the 13th century AD Kazakhstan was overrun by the Mongol hordes of Genghis
Khan and incorporated into his vast empire. In the 14./15. In the 19th century,
the Uzbek and Kazakh khanates (khanate = domain of a khan) emerged. The election
of Sultan Kerei-Khan as regent of the Kazakhs in 1456 marks the beginning of the
statehood of Kazakhstan.
From the middle of the 18th century, Kazakh regents and tribal leaders
increasingly took on Russian citizenship, submitting themselves and their
subjects to tsarist rule. In the first half of the 19th century Kazakhstan was
fully incorporated into the tsarist empire.
After the abolition of serfdom in Russia, the massive resettlement of
Russians to Kazakhstan began in the 1860s. Around 1.5 million Russian farmers
were settled here.
The industrial development of Kazakhstan began at the beginning of the 20th
century with the development of mining (coal, ore and gold extraction).
After the October Revolution, the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Republic was
formed on August 26, 1920 in the northern and central parts of Kazakhstan. In
1924/25 the southern part of Kazakhstan was added and the republic was renamed
the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Republic.
Before and during World War II, Germans, Poles, Greeks, Chechens, Ingush and
other nationalities were deported to Kazakhstan from the Soviet Union, and
numerous Russians were evacuated.
In the course of the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Supreme Soviet of the
Kazakh Soviet Republic adopted the declaration of the independence of Kazakhstan
on October 25, 1990. On December 16, 1991 the "Law on the State Independence of
Kazakhstan" was passed.
Since 1990 Nursultan Äbischuly Nazarbayev (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan)
has been the first and so far only President of the country.
In 1997, Astana was established as the country's new modern capital.