Hungary - More than "just" Budapest
Our image of Hungary is strongly influenced by clichés like in the famous
film "I often think of Piroschka" with Lilo Pulver, or the operettas by Emerich
Kalman, such as the "Czardas König". Szegediner goulash and palinka, the
excellent apricot schnapps, complete this picture of a country and a population
that, according to the cliché, mainly indulge in their leisure time and
otherwise "let God be a good man". The influence of Hungary on Central European
culture is much greater than is commonly assumed.
The unbroken will for freedom, which was clearly shown in the uprising of
1956 against the communist regime, underlines the country's affiliation to the
Central European cultural landscape. On June 27, 1989 the Hungarian Foreign
Minister Gyula Horn - together with his Austrian counterpart Alois Mock -
severed the barbed wire on the border between Austria and Hungary in a symbolic
act. This was one of the building blocks in the collapse of the communist
Not only the leisure industry and tourism but also the qualities of its
business locations shape the status of this new nation within the European
Union. There was great concern in the EU about the performance of the far-right
Jobbik (The Better) party. This anti-European and anti-Roma party won around
16.7% of the vote in the parliamentary elections on April 11, 2010.
In Hungary there is a law that
goes something like this: Anyone who publicly denies, doubts, approves or seeks
to justify the Nazi or communist genocide or other crimes of the Nazis or
communists will face imprisonment from 6 months to 3 years punished.
|Name of the country
||Magyar Köztársaság/Republic of Hungary
|Form of government
||Country in Eastern Europe
||Himnusz: Isten áldd meg a magyart (God save Hungarians)
||since August 6, 2010 Pál Schmitt (born 1942) from the FIDESZ party
|Head of government
||since May 29, 2010 Viktor Orbán (born 1963) of the FIDESZ party
||9.97 million (Credit:
||Hungary 92%; Sinti and Roma 3%;
Germans 1%; Slovaks 1%; Jews 1%; South Slavs 1%; other 1%
||Catholics 63% and Protestants 25.5%, others 11.5%
||Kekes (1,014 m)
||Danube (national share 420 km) 2850 km, Theis (570 km)
||Balaton (Lake Balaton), approx. 530 km²
|International license plate
||1 Forint (Ft) = 100 fillers
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Until the founding of the Empire in 1000
The area of today's Hungary, which lies in the area of the Pannonian
Basin in the Karpartenbogen, was an important settlement area for various
peoples already in early history, which is also proven by numerous
archaeological finds, especially from the Hallstatt period.
In the period 10 AD. - 433 AD the region becomes the
Roman province of Pannonia. The Danube (Donaulimes) serves as an important
border against the continuous settlement pressure of invading peoples of the
beginning migration. Christianity has been introduced since 303,
but it disappears again in the following times of the Great Migration.
Abbreviationfinder website, during 166-180 AD, various peoples such as Marcomanni, Quadi and
Sarmatians invade the region. In the course of the decline of the Western Roman
Empire, Pannonia had to be ceded to the Huns in 433 AD.,
from there largely dominated Central Europe. As a result, Germanic peoples under
the leadership of the Gepid King Ardarich defeated the Huns, whose remnants
retreated to Central Asia. This vacuum was filled by the settlement of various
Germanic tribes (e.g. the Ostrogoths) in the course of the migration of peoples,
until AD 568 the Avars, a people from Inner Asia,
conquered the Carpathian Basin. During the 6th - 8th centuries, Slavic
peoples and Volga-Bulgarians of Turkic origin immigrated. In
791-796 AD, the Avars were conquered by
Charles the Elder. Great subject.
With the Hungarians (Magyars), the last chapter of the great migration in
Europe began at the beginning of the 9th century. After
their expulsion from the steppes north of the Black Sea, Magyar tribes conquered
the Carpathian Basin in 895 under their prince ? Rpád
(840 - 907), the founder of the ? Rpád dynasty. Under his son Zoltan (869-949),
raids across Europe took place, which only came to an end with the victory of
Emperor Otto I over the Hungarian army under your leader Taksony (931-972) in
the battle of the Lechfeld (955) Find.
Taksony then relies on the consolidation of his country by using the help of
German missionaries and knights to set up an administration with his son Geza
(949-997). After eliminating internal rivals, Taksoni's grandson Vajk (975-1038)
is crowned king as Stefan I. 1000/01. With the award of the still existing royal
crown by Pope Sylvester II, the final Christianization of the Hungarians goes
hand in hand. Stefan I was canonized in 1083.
From the establishment of an empire to the Danube monarchy
With the defense against the attack of the German Salier emperor Konrad II
in 1030 the kingdom was able to consolidate. 1102 the
Kingdom of Croatia joins Hungary in personal union. As everywhere in Europe,
domestic politics in the following period was marked by strong battles between
the nobility and the king. Hungary pursues a pronounced hegemonic policy in the
The incursion of the Mongols with the defeat of Bela's IV. Of Hungary (Kg.
1235-1270) in 1241 by a severe destruction of the
country is decisive. Internal disputes in Central Asia put an end to the Mongol
invasion, so that Bela has to rebuild his country with German settlers. The
country's prosperity at the end of the Middle Ages was interrupted by the
conquest of Hungary by the Ottomans under "Suleyman the Magnificent" in the
Battle of Mohacs (1526).
With the death of King Ludwig II, due to previous agreements, the land fell
to the Habsburgs, which Prince Johann Zapolya (1487-1540) opposed, and in the
civil war (1527-1538), which led to the division of
the country into three parts, the Principality of Transylvania took up claims
the Stefanskrone split off. This happened under the tolerance of the Turks, who
brought Central Hungary under their rule. In 1541 this
area was declared a province of the Ottoman Empire.
After Zapolya's death, the part not occupied by the Ottomans became the
province of "royal Hungary" of the Habsburgs. The capital was Pressburg
The decision of the Turkish Wars, which took place largely on Hungarian
territory, was made in 1683 in the Battle of the
Kahlenberg near Vienna. The Habsburgs achieved their final victory over the
Turks with the fall of Budas in 1686. 145 years of
Turkish rule in Hungary came to an end and the "Turkish danger" for Central
Europe was averted.
However, the reign of terror of the Habsburgs in Hungary led to the Kuruc
uprising (1703-1711) under Prince Franz II. Rákóczi (1676-1735). However, the
defeat of the Hungarians meant that the rights of the nobles were renewed and in
return the Habsburgs were accepted as kings of Hungary (Peace of Sathmar 1711).
Hungary under the Danube Monarchy
During the largely tension-free time under the rule of Maria Thresia
(1717-1780) and the Napoleonic Wars (1792-1815), the relationship between the
states was able to consolidate. German settlers (including Danube Swabians)
settled in Hungary.
Nationalist and liberalist movements gripped many European countries at the
beginning of the 19th century. So also Hungary, where the revolution of 1848/49
came under Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) one of the leading freedom
fighters. The struggle for freedom was bloodily suppressed with Russian
support. After a phase of suppression (including the execution of Prime Minister
Batthyány and other freedom fighters in 1849), an understanding between Hungary
and Austria came about in 1867 under Joseph I.
Joseph I was interested in strengthening the multi-ethnic state internally
and found a congenial collaborator in Ferenc Deák (1803 - 1876), the "wise man
of the homeland".
Until the end of the war in 1918, Hungary was the
second main component of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. However, the increasing
Magyarization of the country led to tensions with the other ethnic groups.
The period from 1918 to 1945
After the war in 1918 and the collapse of the
Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Hungary was re-established as an independent state,
but after the fourth month of the Soviet Republic in 1919 under
Béla Kun (1886-1939) it mutated into a national-conservative state. The
reparation payments and cedings of territory (Burgenland, Slovakia,
Transylvania, Croatia, Slavonia) led to strong internal (also economic) crises,
which allowed the country to drift under Miklós Horthy (1868-1957) close to the
National Socialists. Hungary therefore also took part in World War II on
the Axis side, but made the Allies an offer of peace in August 1943,
which led to the German occupation of the country. In October 1944parts
of Hungary were occupied by the Soviet army, on April 4th, 1945 the
fighting was over.
From 1945 through the turning point (communism) to integration with the West
The Allies planned that Hungary should get a democratic system. When,
however, the communists received a severe defeat in the election on November 15,
1945, a phase of systematic preparation for the takeover of power
began with unclean methods. This ended with the dissolution of the other parties
and the election of the unified party "Party of the Hungarian Working People"
and the introduction of a constitution based on the Soviet model on August
20, 1949. Under Mátyás Rákosi (1892-1971) Hungary pursued a
strictly Stalinist course.
This was followed by a period of cautious liberalization from 1953 under
Imre Nagy (1896-1958). In 1955 he was deposed until the
tense political situation led to a popular uprising on October 23,
1956, in the course of which he was reappointed Prime Minister.
The Soviet Army put down the resistance with blood at great expense. Nagy is
tried in secret and executed in June 1958. As a result,
many citizens of the country lost their lives to executions. An increased
emigration train to Western Europe and the USA then began. János Kádár, party
leader from 1956 - 1988, began in 1968 with cautious
economic reforms which became famous under the heading of "goulash
communism". From 1987 onwards the political system began
to change peacefully with the establishment of the first opposition groups. The
party is increasingly determined by economic reformers.
Since autumn 1988the opposition groups in Hungary formed
new parties. In round table discussions since March 1989 between
the newly grouping parties (with the support of the foundations of the German
political parties), the foundations for the Republic of Hungary and a new
liberal constitution were laid, which finally became the first free on March 25,
1990 Held elections since communist rule. A bourgeois coalition led
by the MDF emerged victorious from this election and Joszef Antall was elected
Prime Minister on May 23, 1990.
In 1989 the third Hungarian republic is proclaimed
and Imre Nagy is rehabilitated. In addition, the German Foreign Minister Hans
Dietrich Genscher announced from the balcony of the German embassy in Budapest
that the hundreds of people who had fled there from the GDR were granted
permission to leave the country.
In 1991 the Soviet army withdraws and Hungary withdraws
from the Warsaw Pact.
In 1999 the country became a member of NATO and on
May 1, 2004 a member of the European Union.
In the parliamentary elections on April 11, 2010, the eight-year government
under the Socialists (MSZP) was ended. The right-wing conservative party Fidesz
(League of Young Democrats won almost 53% of the vote under their leader Vilster
Orban. On the other hand, the performance of the right-wing extremist party
Jobbik (The Better), which came in well over 16%, with 7.4% of the vote is of
great concern the left-ecological party (LMP9 came to parliament for the first