Hong Kong - China's fragrant port
Hong Kong, Fragrant Harbor in German, is, together with Macau, a Chinese
special administrative area and also a gigantic metropolitan region that is one
of the most densely populated areas in the world. It is located on the north
side of Hong Kong Island, across from Kowloon on the Kowloon Peninsula.
The city was a British crown colony until 1997, when it fell back to
the People's Republic of China after the lease period of 99 years. Hong Kong,
also known as Victoria City, is now a special administrative region of the
gigantic empire and has been able to give the lie to prophecies that assumed
that the city would perish when it returned to China. Rather, exactly the
opposite has occurred.
The city is prospering more than ever. For example, Hong Kong has one of the
world's most booming real estate markets, with astronomical prices that
even surpass London and New York. For example, a two-room apartment on
Victoria's Peak, the green mountain on Hong Kong Island, costs around HK $ 15
million. This corresponds to an estimated sum of 1.6 million euros.
Hong Kong has one of the largest ports in the world. The port of Hong Kong, for
example, handled the most containers worldwide in 2005 with around 22 million
TEU. The size of the containers are internationally standardized: They are 8
feet wide, 8.6 feet high and 20 or 40 feet long (TEU = Twenty Foot Equivalent
Units = 20 foot (container) units). Singapore With 21.5 million TEU in 2005, it
is second in the world after Hong Kong.
Information that applies to the entire country, e.g. currency, entry
requirements, health issues, etc., is not shown here again. You can find them
|Name of the country
||Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of
China Hong Kong Special Administrative Region,
|Form of government
||22 ° 08 'North to 22' ° 35 'North latitude, 113' ° 49 'to 114' ° 31
||"March of the Volunteers"
national anthem of China
||around 7.2 million residents (Credit:
Countryaah: Hong Kong
||95% Chinese, 5% Others
||90% with a Confucian, Taoist or Buddhist worldview
10% Christians (especially Anglicans and Catholics)
||English, Chinese, and Cantonese are official languages.
||Tai Mo Shan with a height of 958 m
||Pearl River with a length of about 2,200 km
||Tai Tamm dam
||Hong Kong Dollar HKD (HK $)
|Difference to CET
||+ 7 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||220 volts and 50 hertz
|International license plate
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Hong Kong: history
The beginnings of Hong Kong
Neolithic finds are evidence of human settlement around 4,000 years ago. The
burial places in Ma Wan should be mentioned here. Around 200
BC During the Qin Dynasty, the region of what is now Hong Kong
was incorporated into the Chinese Empire. The Han Dynasty Chinese settled in the
region from the 2nd century onwards. The region around Canton was an important
trading center during the Han Dynasty. Salt was produced and pearls were grown
here. The pearl divers belonged to the Tanka tribe
who lived on boats.
Abbreviationfinder website, during the Song Dynasty (approx. 970-1279), large numbers of
settlers arrived from the north. After the Mongols had conquered large parts
of China, the Song dynasty fled to what is now Kowloon. The
Song dynasty was defeated at the Battle of Yamen. The Yuan
dynasty then took power in the region.
The time of colonization
In 1513 the Portuguese Jorge Alvares landed as the first
European on the island of Linti in the Pearl River. He had previously been to
the Moluccas in what is now Indonesia to secure and expand the
sea route to China, with the aim of expanding the direct trade of porcelain with
China. During his 10-month stay on Linti, he built very good
relationships with the locals. In the following years the Portuguese headed for
several places in the region, the island of Lampacao, the
place where the Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier is buried,
developed as a frequently visited place.
Piracy was already common in the region back then, the name Ilhas Ladrones,
island of robbers, still refers to it today.
In 1557, with the consent of the Chinese, the Portuguese established their first
permanent trading post here, Macau, which quickly developed
into a stopover for trade with China and Japan. The Ming Dynasty imposed
the greatest restrictions on the Chinese with regard to foreign activities and
freedom of movement. This benefited the Portuguese as middlemen. They traded in
Chinese silk in exchange for silver and copper from Japan. As a result of the
brisk trade, one speaks of the golden age in the years 1560 to 1640. In 1639,
however, Japan closed itself off to foreigners because the Portuguese had become
too aggressive with their missionary work. As a result, Macau lost a lot of its
importance until the 18th century.
In the meantime the British and Dutch have been able to expand their colonial
power, Hong Kong itself was still a fishing village at that time. Macau was the
only legal trading post for foreigners to trade with China. In canton for
example, foreigners were not allowed to learn Chinese and to settle down with
their wives and families.
In the 17th century, the Manchus, who invaded from the north, drove out
the tribes that had settled on the shores of what is now Hong Kong. However,
they were unsuccessful. The Hakka tribe from the north, who can
still be recognized today by their striking costumes, filled the resulting open
spaces. Around 100,000 people lived in the New
Territories region towards the end of the 19th century.
When the demand for tea increased in Europe, the trade was
correspondingly lucrative. Back then, the Chinese had a kind of monopoly on
tea. They expected silver as a medium of exchange for the coveted tea, which was
a burden on the European public treasury. The British East India Company held
the opium monopoly in India, where it grew opium and from
where it transported opium to China in specially equipped smuggled ships. Opium
served as a medium of exchange for the coveted goods from China.
The Opium Wars and the British Occupation
The Opium Wars and the British Occupation
In 1839 the Chinese commissioner Tse-hsue successfully took action
against the opium trade. The British reacted gruffly, and even took this as a
reason for the First Opium War. In 1842, the Peace of Nanking was signed, which
opened five ports, including Hong Kong. The natural deep sea harbor and its fame
among seafarers as well as the abundant drinking water resources were the
reasons for the rapid development of Hong Kong. Heung Gong in English "Fragrant
Harbor" is a reference to the sandalwood mills in Aberdeen. You could smell the
sandalwood from afar at sea.
On January 26, 1842, Hong Kong was officially occupied by the British and
declared a British Crown Colony. A few months later, building activity began. In
1843, Hong Kong was officially declared a crown colony. At that time the city
was called Victoria. The first 20 years of the colony were marked by corruption
and poor administration. It wasn't until 1862, when the first British civil
servants learned Chinese, that the situation improved.
During the Second Opium War (1857-1860) the Summer Palace in Beijing was burned
down, an Anglo-French administration moved into Canton, and Kowloon and
Stonecuter's Island became British. Since 1869 the islands of Hong Kong have
been increasingly used as a summer resort. In 1888 the mountain railway went
into operation, with which you can still reach the peak today. When it was
connected to London by a deep sea cable in 1870, the city developed into a
communications hub. The tram system was built as early as 1904.
1898 British lease contract
In 1898, the Beijing Convention agreed on a 99-year lease. The French
"rented" Kwangchowwan, the British the New Territories, which they held until
Hong Kong in the 20th century
The Japanese occupied the New Territories in 1941 and Hong Kong Island on
December 18 of that year. Under the Japanese regime, many Chinese were forced to
return to their hometowns on the mainland. The civilian population in the city
was temporarily interned. On August 15, 1945 the Japanese surrendered and on
August 30, the British again hoisted their flag in the city.
In the post-war years, Hong Kong begins to rebuild. The population multiplied by
the returning war refugees and civil war refugees. The most important challenge
of this time was the residential construction, many of these high-rise buildings
can still be seen today.
The city grew rapidly from the late 1940s onwards due to the Chinese fleeing
communism. They brought money and labor, which was the basis of the
During this rapid period, an urban area called the "Walled City (Chinese Hak
Nam)" (today's Kowloon) was created where the triads, prostitution, illegal
trade and other petty criminals operated their trade. There the people lived
under the worst hygienic conditions and living conditions (cage people), the
population increased and at that time had the highest population density in the
world. This district had its own law (law-free zone), even the local police only
ventured into it in extreme cases with a larger occupation. The demolition work
took place at the end of 1995. Today there is a "Kowloon Walled City Park" with
some historical artefacts and parts of buildings from that time.
On June 30, 1997, Hong Kong was officially returned to the Chinese. After the
handover to China, Beijing announced that it would dissolve all democratically
elected institutions. And has been a special administrative region of China ever
After the transfer of power, a number of legislative changes were enacted,
including the regulations on freedom of assembly and association; In the future,
demonstrations had to be registered seven days in advance. Protests and
demonstrations ensued in the city itself.
In 2008/2009, the Asian stock exchange was not spared the economic turmoil. The
middle class, local banks and the self-employed were particularly hard hit. A
sustained recovery is expected for 2010.
To this day you can see many empty shops and banks in the districts that no
Nevertheless, Hong Kong is a special administrative region of China and the
locals have an almost naive view of "the main thing is that we can do business".