Finland - country in the far north of Europe
Finland - in 1906 after Russia's defeat in the war against Japan, the Russian
tsar was forced to make substantial concessions in the country. The Finns used
this to set up their own very progressive parliament, including the right to
vote for women. But it was not until 1917, after the fall of the Tsarist Empire,
that Finland became an independent country from Sweden and Russia. In the
subsequent civil war between conservative (whites) and left-wing forces (reds),
which lasted from 1917 to 1919, the conservative forces triumphed over the
reds. After that Finland became a western democracy.
The Republic of Finland also includes parts of Lapland in the far north, where
the Saamen ethnic group lives. Santa Claus, who allegedly lives in Finland, and
the reindeer are also associated with northern Finland, as are secluded and
unspoiled nature and solitude.
Finland was the 2001 PISA winner and has been named the top country and world
champion in school education. Germany is called "Saksa" in Finnish and is
derived from the name for the Saxon tribe. The Finns probably first came into
contact with merchants from Saxony, who came from there to the Finnish
coast. This also explains why the second meaning of the word "Saksa" is junk
Friends of seafaring and cruises will be interested in the fact that a giant
cruise ship was completed in Turku in 2009. It is the 360 m long and 47 m wide
"Oasis of the Sea". The ship offers space for around 5,400 passengers.
|Name of the country
||Republic of Finland, Suomen Tasavalta
|Form of government
||Northern Europe in Scandinavia
||December 6 (independence December 6, 1917)
|Head of state
||President Tarja Halonen (Social Democratic Party)
since March 1, 2000. Re-elected on January 29, 2006.
||about 5.4 million (Credit:
||approx. 92% of the population are Finns, approx. 5.6% Swedes and
approx. 0.6% Russians. The Saamen ethnic group also lives in Lapland,
although they only make up about 0.1% of the total Finnish population.
||82.5% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran
Church. 16.4% are non-denominational. A minority profess to the Finnish
||The official languages are Finnish and Swedish as well as the
minority language Saami, the language of the Lapps.
||Helsinki with around 595,550 residents
||Haltitunturi with a height of 1,324 m
||Kemijoki with a length of 483 km
||Saimaa Lake with an area of 1,460 km²
|International license plate
||1 euro = 100 cents
|Time difference to CET
||+ 1 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||230 volts, 50 hertz
|Internet Top Level Domain (TLD)
Before the year 1000
After the end of the last ice age around 30,000 years ago, people from the
south and south-east settled in what is now Finland around 9,000 years ago.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
Abbreviationfinder website, in 1155 missionaries came to Finland from Sweden. The
country was incorporated into the Kingdom of Sweden.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
In 1809 Sweden had to cede Finland to Russia due to a lost
war. Finland then became an autonomous Grand Duchy of Russia.
20th century to the present
In 1906, after Russia's defeat in the war against Japan, the Russian tsar
was forced to make substantial concessions in the country. The Finns used this
to set up their own very progressive parliament, including the right to vote for
women. But it was not until December 6, 1917, after the fall
of the tsarist empire, that Finland became an independent country from Sweden
and Russia. In the subsequent civil war between conservative (whites) and
left-wing forces (reds) - between 1917 and 1919 - the conservative forces
triumphed over the reds. After that Finland became a western democracy.
Stalin demanded a number of areas from Finland around the flank of Leningrad -
today's St. Petersburg- to be able to secure. After these demands were rejected
by the Finnish government, the Soviet Union attacked Finland in the so-called
Winter War, which lasted from 1939 to 1940. The Finns under Marshal Mannersheim
were defeated and lost large parts of Karelia to the Soviet Union. In the course
of the Second World War it occurred in the years 1941 to 1944 between
Finnish and Russian troops around the lost territories for the so-called
Continuation War. As a result of the peace treaty of 1947, a large part of
Karelia finally fell to the Soviet Union - in return, Finland remained a
sovereign and independent state. The high reparations payments as a result of
this treaty as well as the integration of approx. 400,000 displaced persons from
the annexed areas cost the country enormous efforts.
In 1955 Finland became a member of the United Nations and the
Nordic Council. Finland joined the European Union in 1995.
On March 1, 2000, Tarja Halonen (born 1943) became the country's first woman
president. On January 29, 2006, she was able to repeat her success in a runoff
election and was thus re-elected President of Finland for six years.
Finland's reputation as a very social and democratic society was badly cracked
in January 2008 when the board of Nokia decided to close its plant in Bochum
and move production to Romania, despite a return of around 15%.