European education systems in modern times have developed
primarily on the basis of pedagogical ideas based on the human
vision of the Enlightenment and on the need to qualify the
workforce. In addition, the state power everywhere has tried through
the school's business to create loyal citizens.
All European countries today give high priority to the education
system on both ideological and economic grounds. In the 1950's and
1960's, public expenditure on education increased in both Eastern
and Western Europe by more than 10% per year, i.e. with more than
twice as much as the growth of gross domestic product. Many
countries extended the compulsory education period and the number of
pupils in Europe's primary schools increased by 30% during the same
Compulsory schooling or education has been introduced in all
European countries, although it is not fully implemented everywhere.
As a rule, it covers an 8-10-year period, in the UK, however, 11
years. See a full list of
countries from Countryaah.
Developments after World War II. This development in European
education can be characterized by the words expansion,
democratization and quality. Expansion coincided with economic
growth in the 1960's, while the demand for democratization was
already raised in the years immediately following World War II;
democratization only really took off, however, when economic growth
a few years later created the conditions for it. The connection
between economic growth, expansion and democratization of education
was the subject of much attention throughout the 1970's in Europe by
politicians, administrators and researchers. The reforms of that
period were therefore primarily structural reforms aimed at creating
educational unity and coherence.
With the economic downturn and the consequent sharp rise in
unemployment following the oil crisis in the mid-1970's, attention
was drawn to better resource utilization, the structure and content
of education systems were questioned, and demands for political
control and quality control were raised., not least under the
influence of the US report A Nation at Risk(1983). The quality
requirement that was sought to be met in Europe through increasing
decentralization of education, e.g. as regards the competing
activities of educational institutions, was further strengthened by
the fact that Europe within the same period increasingly saw itself
involved in economic and technological competition with Asia and the
USA. The reforms of that period aimed more at the content, norms and
values of the educations than at the structure.
More education for more. The expansion of the educations has
taken hold at all stages of the national education systems. The open
and compulsory primary school has throughout the period led to
increased pressure on the secondary stages, ie. approximately
11.-18. year. For women, the growth in the search has even been
greater than for men, although there is a big difference in which
types of education are chosen by resp. women and men, especially in
vocational education and training.
Within higher education, the expansion has been reflected in a
strong growth in the number of universities and other higher
education institutions as well as in new types of institutions such
as the so-called open universities. At the same time, the demand for
adjustment and flexibility in the adult part of the population
throughout Europe has increased interest in adult education, cf. a
term such as life-long education, a concept originating in the
English educational situation in the 1960's.
An important feature of post-war development is the establishment
of international cooperation on education under the auspices of
UNESCO, the Council of Europe and the OECD. In recent years,
however, cooperation within the EU has been of the greatest
importance to the Member States. Under the Treaty of Rome, this
cooperation initially covered only vocational education, but was
later extended to include higher education. From the end of the
1970's a number of exchange programs were developed such as ERASMUS,
COMENIUS, LINGUA and TEMPUS. And with Articles 126 and 127 of the
Maastricht Treaty, the most far-reaching legal basis so far for
increased cooperation in the field of education has been provided,
albeit without any harmonization.
Isle of Man
Isle of Man, (manx Ellan Vannin/Mannin), island in the
Irish Sea; 572 km2, 84,500 residents (2011), capital Douglas. The
Isle of Man belongs to Britain, but has autonomy. The island is known for its
financial market, which has arisen due to favorable tax conditions.
Despite the island's relatively modest size, it has a varied
landscape. Centrally located is a mountainous area with the highest point in
Snaefell (621 m). North and south of this, flatter agricultural areas spread out
towards the steep rock walls of the coast. The island is almost without tree
growth. The climate is temperate, without extremes. The coldest month is
February with an average temperature of 4.8 °C. The warmest are July and August
with 14.6 °C. The annual rainfall is approximately 1000 mm. The tailless manx cat is
widespread on the island.
The Isle of Man has an economy that rests on agriculture, fishing industry,
tourism and especially manufacturing as well as on the financial sector. 80% of
the island's area is cultivated. The majority is used for grazing area. Cattle,
pigs, sheep and chickens are raised here; in addition, cereals and vegetables
are grown. The fishing industry is based on cod, flatfish, stingrays and
plaice. Due to very favorable tax conditions, the financial sector is dominated
by British and overseas subsidiaries, banking, insurance companies, listed
companies and ship registration, and the financial activity has increased the
island's population during the 1990's. Tourism is linked to for the sale of
duty-free goods and for the motorcycle race Tourist Trophy, which takes place
every year in May/June.
The first residents of the Isle of Man can be dated to approximately 8000-5000
BC The Celts settled approximately 200 BC, and their language, Manx, was
dominant until the mid-1800's. In the early 800-t. Norwegian and Danish Vikings
invaded the Isle of Man, after which the island was under Norwegian rule. The
Vikings established a parliament, Tynwald (tingvoll), which still
forms the basis of the island's partial domestic political autonomy. The
Norwegian king sold the Isle of Man to Scotland in 1266, and the island passed
into English supremacy in 1341. 1406-1736 the island was ruled by the Stanley
family, but Britain refused to miss out on the Isle of Man's customs revenue and
bought it in 1765. In 1828, the British established the office of lieutenant
governor. (Lord of Man), who has since administered the island in
collaboration with Tynwald.
Channel Islands, eng. Channel Islands, fr. Îles Normandes,
archipelago in the English Channel, located at the entrance to St. Gulf of Malo
25 km off the coast of Normandy in France and 130 km south of the English
coast; 163,900 residents (2012), 196 km2.
The majority of the population lives on the two largest
islands, Jersey and Guernsey, where also the two largest cities, St. Helier and
St. Peter Port, located. Other islands are Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou and
Geologically, the islands form fragments of the French coastal area and rise
as low rocky islands with incised, steep shores and many skerries. The islands
have a coastal climate with very mild winters, which is reflected in the
presence of heat-demanding flora and enables the production of early vegetables
for the English market, which is considered domestic trade. Jersey cattle are
bred for export (see cattle). The climate, tax and customs legislation have
made tourism an important source of income.
The Channel Islands belonged from 933 to Normandy, whose duke in 1066 became
English king. They remained under the English crown after England's loss of
Normandy in 1204. During World War II, the islands were occupied by
Germany. However, the Channel Islands are not in the real sense part of the
United Kingdom (UK) and they are not a member of the EU. Jersey and Guernsey
with surrounding islands have autonomy with a British-appointed governor for
each area, its own parliament, state apparatus, flag and coin, as well as its
own legal basis. In the past, the majority of the population was
French-speaking, but today English is the dominant language.
Sovereignty over a few of the smaller islands has been challenged by France,
because it has an impact on the right to economic exploitation of the sea
and the seabed around the islands.