It is almost a sad irony of fate that the República del Ecuador, which
extends in the northwest of the South American continent
between Peru, Colombia and the Pacific Ocean, is on the one hand one of the
second poorest countries in South America, but on the other the countries with
the greatest biodiversity on earth. Not only that the country has incredible
natural beauties such as the road of the volcanoes or the tropical mountain
forest on the slopes of the Andes.
The colonial center of the high-altitude capital, San Francisco de
Quito, was the first place ever to be placed on the UNESCO World
Heritage List in 1978. In addition, UNESCO has declared three regions of Ecuador
to be biosphere reserves. These include the Yasuní
National Park, Sumaco and above all the famous Islas
Galápagos (Galápagos Islands), 1000 kilometers off
the coast of Ecuador, which are home to an incredible fauna.
Of course, all of this also explains why tourism has developed into one of
the most important economic sectors in the country in recent years. To
adequately enumerate all the unimaginable beauty the country has to offer would
go beyond the scope of an introduction.
We can therefore only briefly refer to the 12 national parks, to the "Ruta de
sol" along the Ecuadorian coast, to Cuenca, the third largest city in Ecuador
and another UNESCO World Heritage Site, or to Baños, the city that is forgotten
below the active volcano Tungurahua. Also important is the coastal town of
Puerto López, from which trips to Isla de la Plata can be made and where the
whales swim, or the Shangrila Lodge, which sits enthroned on a steep slope above
the Anzu River and which almost brings tears to your eyes in view of the
decadently beautiful View over the rainforest.
Ecuador, located on the equator - hence the name - is not only one of the
most diverse countries in the world geographically, but also linguistically and
ethnically. Aside from the official language of Spanish, many Ecuadorians speak
Quichua, a dialect of Quechua introduced by the Incas at the time of their great
conquests. Local indigenous languages and dialects are also spoken, of which
Shuar is the most widely used.
The indígenas (= indigenous parts of the population) form a very large
proportion in the country, which makes up about half of the country's
residents. About 45% of all Ecuadorians have settled in the two largest cities
in the country. In addition to Quito, Santiago de Guayaquil should be mentioned
in this regard, which has the most important port in the republic and attracts
visitors from all over the world with its restored colonial buildings, modern
buildings and the historic Barrio Las Peñas.
|Name of the country
||República del Ecuador
|Form of government
||On the northwest coast of South America
||Volley, Oh Patria
||approx. 17.3 million (Credit:
||Official: 35% mestizo, 25% European, 15% mulatto and 5% African
||93% Roman Catholic. Protestants and Jews form small minorities
||Spanish is the official language, Quchua and Chibcha are also spoken
||San Francisco de Quito with 1.4 million residents
||The Chimborazo volcano with a height of 6,310 m
||San Pablo in Imbabura Province
|International license plate
||until 2000 the "sucre" now it is the US dollar (USD)
|Time difference to CET
||- 6 h (Galapagos: - 7 h)
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||120-130 volts, 60 Hertz (US plug adapter and transformer required)
|Internet TDL (Top Level Domain)
10,000 BC Until about the year 1498
The first settlements probably emerged around ten thousand BC. The oldest
ceramic culture in America, the Valvdiva culture, originated
here in the fourth millennium before the era. The coastal people of the Cara conquered
the highlands from the 11th century AD and subjugated the Quito who
lived there. So they founded the Shyri dynasty.
The Spanish colonial era
Abbreviationfinder website, in the fifteenth century the Caras had to submit to the Incas, who invaded
the country from Peru. After that, the area was the scene of the bloody civil
war between the two sons of the Inca ruler Huania Cápac (reigned
1493-1527). The first-born Huáscar (around 1500 - 1532)
received the heartland of the Inca Empire, his brother Atahualpa (around
1500 - 1533) the northern part, with the capital Quito. Atahualpa asserted
himself as sole ruler in 1532.
In May 1531 the troops of the Spanish conqueror Francisco Pizarro were
already there(1475 - 1541) landed in Peru. Within a few years they subjugated
the powerful Inca Empire, whose last ruler Atahualpa was strangled by Pizarro
himself in August 1533.
Quito was conquered in 1534 and Ecuador was incorporated into the Viceroyalty of
Peru, founded in 1543. In 1563 Quito was appointed Real Audiencia de
Quito. The area was still under the viceroy of Peru, but had limited
In 1729 Ecuador became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada along with the
later states of Colombia, Venezuela, Panama and Peru.
On the way to independence
When Napoleon waged war against Spain in Europe, the residents of Ecuador
began to revolt against the colonial rulers. Spanish troops first defeated the
rebels in Quito in 1809. It was only through the intervention of the Venezuelan Simón
de Bolívar (1783 - 1830) that the rebels of Ecuador achieved victory
over the Spaniards in 1822. One of Bolívar's most important comrades-in-arms
was José Antonio de Sucre. As ruler, he led the troops at
Pichincha to a decisive victory.
In the same year Ecuador founded the Republic of Greater Colombia together with
Venezuela, Colombia and Panama. Bolívar was elected President. In 1830, after
Bolívar's death, this federation disintegrated. Ecuador and Venezuela declared
themselves independent. In the same year the country receives its first own
independent writing. not all benefited from it. The oppression of the native
Indian population continued, as citizenship rights depended on property and
Riots and coups between 1830 and 1945
After independence, the country was initially confronted with massive
domestic and foreign policy problems. On the one hand, border conflicts strained
the relationship with neighboring Colombia. On the other hand, the country was
politically divided. The large landowners in the highlands feared for their
economic and political supremacy, while the richer traders and plantation owners
on the coast urgently demanded trade liberalization. This contrast brought every
new government of the young republic into distress. Between 1845 and 1860 there
were eleven changes of government.
In 1860 Gabriel García Moreno launched a coup to power. He
established a conservative clerical dictatorship in which only Catholics were
granted civil rights. Until his assassination in 1875, however, he managed to
stabilize the country by expanding the infrastructure.
The following, liberal President Eloy Alfaro (1895-1901,
1906-1911) nationalized church property, abolished the church tax and carried
out the separation of church and state. The railway network was expanded under
He set up universities and promoted the development of a professional army. His
policies, like those of his successors, were financed by profits from cocoa
cultivation and trading. In Ecuador, cocoa production tripled between 1880 and
1915. In 1920 cocoa accounted for almost three quarters of all goods
exported. Alfaro was the founder of the liberal revolution in Ecuador. In 1911
he was overthrown and murdered in a coup.
The democratic structure was not consolidated in the period that followed. Due
to the permanently unstable political situation in the country, the country
gained the dubious reputation of being a banana republic.
In 1934 Velasco became Ibarra elected president of the country
by an overwhelming majority. He became of particular importance to the political
history of Ecuador as he was president of the country five times.
In 1941 Peru annexed two provinces of Ecuador and large parts of the
Amazon. There was never an exact demarcation between the two countries. So the
Peruvian government tried to create facts. In the "Rio de Janeiro Protocol" a
year later, Ecuador had to accept a loss of 40% of its previous national
territory to Peru.
After 1945 until today
After World War II until the beginning of the 1950s, there was an economic
boom, mainly due to the banana cultivation. The American United Fruit
Company developed Ecuador into their largest supplier country. However,
when sales problems arose, strikes broke out in the country and were bloodily
After various presidencies and military governments had failed, Velasco Ibarra
was re-elected president of the country in 1968. In 1972, shortly before the end
of his term in office, the military overthrew Velasco, which had been given
dicatatorial powers since 1970. The putsch also excluded the parties from
Under the leadership of General Guillermo Rodríguez Lara, the military announced
far-reaching structural reforms in the areas of agriculture, taxes, income,
etc. The sale of domestic oil, which at that time was increasingly being
promoted by foreign companies, should also be prevented. Oil has been the
largest position in Ecuador's foreign trade since 1973. The reforms were to be
financed with this income. However, the reforms got stuck in their beginnings.
In 1979 a new constitution was passed, which is still in force today.
Under pressure from the International Monetary Fund, Ecuador had to implement
radical reforms in the 1990s.
State-owned companies were privatized, tariff restrictions were eliminated and
government spending was cut. Almost a third of Ecuadorians live below the
poverty line. The national currency Sucre was abolished in favor of the US
On April 26, 2009, Rafael Correa (born 1963) - a former economist - who has been
President of the country since January 15, 2007, was re-elected for another four
Lenin Moreno has been the country's president since May 24, 2017.