China - country in the middle
The People's Republic of China or the Middle Kingdom (Zhōngguó) is the most
populous country on earth with around 1.4 billion residents, ahead of
India. At the same time, it is East Asia's largest country in terms of area and
the fourth largest country in the world after Russia, Canada and the USA.
The People's Republic became particularly conscious of the world when it hosted
the 29th Summer Olympics from August 8 to August 24, 2008.
China's civilization and the country's high culture are among the oldest in
human history, with the Han Chinese in particular appearing as bearers of this
culture. Today they make up more than 91% of the total population of the
People's Republic of China.
The first written records of Chinese culture go back more than 3,500 years,
although the myth tells of the three great emperors Fuxi, Shennong and Huang Di,
who even lived 5,000 or 6,000 years ago and are said to have been the actual
creators of China. 16 earthly and numerous heavenly emperors preceded the
historically but not verifiable emperors. It is certain that the Chinese Empire
in 221 BC. Was established by the then emperor Qín Shǐhuáng. In total, until the
proclamation of the Chinese Republic in 1912, it existed for 2,133 years before
it perished with the last emperor Pǔ Yí. Yuán Shìkǎi, the first president of the
new Chinese republic, declared himself emperor in 1915, but his rule lasted just
The People's Republic of China was finally proclaimed on October 1, 1949, and
what began was a story of gigantomanism, death and destruction, but also of
revolution, experiment and upswing. The first 30 years of the People's Republic
were shaped primarily by a man who will remain associated with the name China
more than any other person: We are of course talking about Máo Zédōng, the most
important Chinese politician of the 20th century. While for some he was one of
the great and venerable personalities of a bloody century, he is little more
than an egomaniacal demagogue who was able to manipulate people and who first
seduced their idealism, then exploited it and finally broke it. Under his
influence, between 20 and 40 million people died during the so-called “Great
Leap Forward” and the cruel “Cultural Revolution”. Above all, the blind
destruction of cultural assets, history and people, which between 1966 and 1976
exterminated everything that did not appear proletarian in the context of
communist purity, makes it a more than grotesque process when the Beijing
visitor enters the Forbidden City the Gate of Heavenly Peace steps, on which a
giant portrait of the mass murderer Mao hangs.
The gigantic empire of China, which is sometimes still classified here and there
as a developing country, whose "Great Wall" can supposedly be seen from the
moon, but is lost from sight from the plane, has been growing ever since the
economic "opening" after the devastating "Cultural Revolution" “Developed
further and faster into a great power that has to be taken seriously in the
economic and political arena.
However, the massacre on Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 1989 against students
demonstrating is still fondly remembered.
But there are also rays of hope in this so diverse China: On March 14, 2004,
the Chinese National People's Congress passed an amendment to the Chinese
constitution, in which respect for human rights and private property is to be
included for the first time since 1949. "The state respects and protects human
rights," it says there, among other things. That sounds like a mockery at the
moment, but it will hopefully prevail in the future of the country, because
China has arrived in the 21st century and world politics and the world economy
cannot be imagined without it.
There are 65 cities with a million residents in Cina, 17 in the EU and four in
Germany. Of the local people, around 51.9% are men and 48.1% are women. The
annual per capita income for the whole country was the equivalent of 300 US
dollars in 1990, in 2020 it was already 10,000 US dollars and in large
metropolises such as Shanghai or Shenzen a lot more. In 2019, over 150 million
Chinese people traveled abroad. In 2020 there were 31,000 km of track for
Founded in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party had around 90 million members in
|Name of the country
||Zhonghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó (People's Republic of China)
|Form of government
||People's Socialist Republic
||The national anthem of the People's Republic of China is entitled
"March of the Volunteers"
||around 1.4 billion, of which 51.9% are men and 48.1% women (Credit:
||Han Chinese, Zhuang, Hui, Manchu, Miao, Mongols, Koreans, Turkic
peoples, Tibetans; around 55 national minorities
||Buddhism, Daoism, Islam, Protestantism, Catholicism, Confucianism
an estimated 6.5% are Christians
||Standard Chinese (Mandarin), also known as Standard Chinese, various
Chinese dialects, 55 languages of the national minorities (including
Tibetan, Uighur, Mongolian) and English
||Mount Everest 8,848 m, Ch'aio-ko-li Feng (K2) 8,611 m, Kamet 7,756
m, Namjagbarwa Feng 7,755 m
||the 6,300-kilometer Changjiang (Yangtze) is China's longest river.
It is the third longest river in the world (after the Nile and the
||The Qinghai Lake is the largest salt lake in China - with an area of
|International license plate
||1 ¥ uan (Ren Min Bi ¥ uan) = 10 Jiao = 100 Fen
|Difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||nationwide 220 volts. (Depending on the region, however, adapters
for double or triple flat connectors are required.), 50 Hz.
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Until around the year 1000
First evidence of an early, loose settlement of China in the area between
today's Luoyang and Xi'an comes from the Shang dynasty (around 1700 - 1025 BC).
Abbreviationfinder website, the following Zhou dynasty (1025-256 BC) was a feudal state whose supreme
institution was 'tian', heaven. It was the ruler's task as the 'son of heaven'
to mediate between him and his subjects. During the Zhou Dynasty, in the 6th
century BC. Many philosophical schools emerged in the 4th century BC, including
Confucianism and Daoism. The Zhou dynasty disintegrated into battles from which
the first central state of Qin emerged under Prince Qin.
221 BC After a 10-year campaign and the submission of other principalities,
the prince of Qin proclaimed himself the first emperor of China, Qin
Shihuangdi. During his reign, wall systems were connected to form the Great
Wall. Dimensions, weights and writing were massively standardized and a
centralized administration was implemented in the unified territory. His tomb,
in which the army of the clay soldiers was, is located around 40 km northeast of
Xi`an, the provincial capital of Shaanxi.
From the year 65 AD, Buddhism came to China via the Silk Road.
After the Han dynasty, other dynastic rule followed. In 618 AD, Li Klan
proclaimed the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The cultural heyday began. The contacts
of the empire extended to India and Persia. A connection to the Tibetan court
Around 960, the center of China shifted south. Kaifeng became the capital of
the Song Dynasty (960-1279). The north of China was conquered by nomadic
horsemen. They established a capital not far from what is now Beijing.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
Between 1279 and 1368 a total of ten Mongol emperors conquered and united the
empire of China. Their successful campaign of conquest to the west and south
began in 1206 after the Mongols had agreed on Genghis as Great Khan. For the
first time, Genghis' grandson Kublai, a non-Chinese, ruled over the empire in
which Khanbaliq, today's Beijing, became the capital. Numerous foreign
administrators such as Marco Polo were in Kublai's service. After the death of
the Mongol emperor in 1294, the power of the Mongols disintegrated.
Between 1368 and 1644, after the fall of Mongol rule, the Chinese emperors of
the Ming dynasty (a total of 20 emperors) ruled China. The founder of the Ming
dynasty was Hongwuh (1328-1398), emperor from 1368 to 1398. He was succeeded by
Jianwen (1377-1402). his successor, the third emperor, Yongle (1360-1424), chose
Beijing as the capital of his empire and had the imperial palace and other
buildings built. The Great Wall was also rebuilt in greater length and in a new
shape under his rule.
From 1405 to 1435, on behalf of his emperor Yongle, Admiral Zheng He sailed
the coasts of Asia and Arabia with an armada of huge ships that were said to
have been up to 100 m long, and even reached East Africa.
The death of Emperor Yongle in 1424 led to the end of the previous naval policy
under his successor, Emperor Hongxi (1378-1425), and the fleet was
decommissioned. But after his death in 1425 his son, the Xuande Emperor
(1399-1435), ascended the imperial throne. He had the Fotte reactivated and
around 1430 gave the order to make another trip. To this end, Zheng He was
reinstated as an admiral. This naval policy then came to an end under his
successor, Emperor Zhengtong (1427-1464), the sixth emperor of the Ming
dynasty. The emperor shut down the entire fleet and it was forbidden to build
ships with more than one mast, even on the death penalty. One of the reasons for
this rigorous policy was the huge cost of the fleet, another was the policy of
total isolation of the country from the outside world.
From 1644 the Manchurians conquered Beijing and new territories in the west. The
era of the Quing Dynasty with its 11 emperors began and lasted de facto until
1911, the year of his abdication, and officially until January 1, 1912, when the
Republic of China was proclaimed.
The first emperor of the Quing dynasty was Shunzhi (1638-1661), emperor from
October 30, 1644 to 1661. He was the son of the Manchurian prince Huang Tai Ji
(Abahai) and became after the conquest of China by the Manchus - the indigenous
people of the today's Manchuria in northeast China - at the age of 6 the first
emperor of the newly established Qing dynasty.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
In 1842 the Europeans tried to intensify trade with China, mainly by
force. The British waged war over opium as a commodity. The Opium Wars and the
resulting treaties of Nanjing led to the opening of the Chinese ports and the
seizure of Hong Kong by the colonial power Great Britain. Other colonial
Between 1850 and 1864, the Taiping uprising in southern and central China shook
the empire. It was directed against the conservative central power in Beijing
and was violently suppressed.
The defeat in the war against Japan (1894-1895) forced China to recognize the
independence of Korea and cede Taiwan to Japan. China had already lost territory
to Russia, France and Great Britain in several so-called unequal treaties. In
1898 the young emperor Guangxu's attempts at modernization were prevented by the
imperial widow Cixi and the conservatives.
20th century until today
In Beijing the so-called boxers occupied the legation quarters from July to
August 1900 in order to combat the advance of the European powers. The
occupation was dissolved by the Allied troops, with parts of the city being
In 1911, an opposition movement that had formed in the south of the country
forced the emperor to abdicate. 1905 Revolutionary Union doctor and founder Sun
Yatsen was declared President of the Provisional Republican Government on
December 29, 1911. On January 1, 1912, Sun Yatsen proclaimed the Republic of
China. He was ousted by the imperial military leader Yuan Shikai, who became
China's first president on October 6, 1913. After the death of the dictatorial
general (1916), the Middle Kingdom split into many centers of power. The ruling
warlords fought each other. The Versailles Treaty made the former German
colonies in China subject to Japan. The treatment of China in the Versailles
Treaty resulted in
In 1921, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was founded in Shanghai.
In 1925, after Sun Yatsen's death, Chiang Kaishek took over the leadership of
the nationalist Guomindang (GMD).
In 1928 he restored the unity of China and became head of government.
In 1931, the last emperor of China, Puyi, was installed in a puppet regime
founded by the Japanese. The conquest of the Japanese forces continued south
from Manchuria. In 1934/35 the communists, under their future party leader Mao
Zedong, withdrew in the "Long March" over 12,000 km to Yan'an. In 1937 northeast
China, the cities of Shanghai, Beijing and Nanking were occupied by Japan under
horrific conditions for the Chinese population. At the end of 1941, China
declared war on Germany. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, civil war broke
out in China, which the Chinese Communist Party won in 1949 with the help of
Soviet support. As a result, the Chiang Kaishek government fled to Taiwan under
On October 1, 1949, Mao proclaimed the People's Republic of China. The ruling
party became the Chinese Communist Party. She introduced Prime Minister Zhou
Enlai. In 1950 the friendship treaty with the Soviet Union was concluded and
Tibet was occupied. In the same year the Korean War begins, in which China
supports North Korea in the war against the South and the USA. Almost a million
Chinese are killed. In 1954, Mao became President of China through the adoption
of the Constitution. After his "Hundred Flower Movement", an apparently public
debate about Communist Party rule in China, he mercilessly persecuted his
critics in a further campaign ("Campaign against deviants"). Between 1958 and
1960 the forced industrialization program ("Big leap forward") promoted
collectivization. The union of the farmers in people's communes ended in an
economic disaster that resulted in 40 million deaths from starvation.
In 1959 the Dalai Lama fled with thousands of followers into exile in northern
India. A year later, after a dispute over the leadership role in the socialist
camp, the ideological break with Moscow took place. There was no economic aid
from the USSR.
In 1964, China detonated the first atomic bomb.
With the so-called "Great Cultural Revolution" of 1966, Mao Zedong directed
himself against his internal party opponents and everything civil and foreign. A
number of cultural assets are destroyed by the Red Guard, a schoolchildren and
student movement in the spirit of Mao. Millions of counter-revolutionaries are
put in so-called "re-education camps". After 1969 there was a calming of the
political situation, a political opening of China through the entry into the UN
(1971) and the recognition of China by the West. Relations with the USA
relaxed. The deaths of Zhou Enlai and Mao Zedong (September 1976) sparked
political power struggles between the dogmatic left wing of the Communist Party
and the Chinese military. The successor to Mao was Hua Goufeng. He became the
party leader of the CPC. The 3rd In 1977, the plenary session of the X Central
Committee elected Deng Xiaoping as Prime Minister. He wanted to modernize the
PRC and implemented reforms in the economy, but not in politics. With the
amendment of the constitution and the party mares in 1982, the office of party
chairman was abolished and replaced by the office of general secretary. Hua
Goufeng was stripped of all leadership positions. As a result of the
modernization around Deng Xiaoping, the People's Congress passed a company law
in 1988 that gave state-owned companies more freedom. With the amendment of the
constitution and the party mares in 1982, the office of party chairman was
abolished and replaced by the office of general secretary. Hua Goufeng was
stripped of all leadership positions. As a result of the modernization around
Deng Xiaoping, the People's Congress passed a company law in 1988, which gave
state-owned companies more freedom. With the amendment of the constitution and
the party mares in 1982, the office of party chairman was abolished and replaced
by the office of general secretary. Hua Goufeng was stripped of all leadership
positions. As a result of the modernization around Deng Xiaoping, the People's
Congress passed a company law in 1988, which gave state-owned companies more
In 1989, former General Secretary Hu Yaobang, who was disempowered in 1987,
died. His death in April 1989 set a nationwide democracy movement in motion,
which culminated in a demonstration by hundreds of thousands (mostly students
and workers) against the corrupt rule of the Communist Party. By imposing
martial law on the Chinese party leadership, the Chinese military forcibly
evacuated Tian'anmen Square in Beijing on June 4, 1989 after a week-long
occupation. The imposition of martial law resulted in thousands of deaths and
nationwide persecutions and executions. The political opening to the West
through the economic reform course was declared a national goal by the 14th
Party Congress of the CCP in October 1992. A "socialist market economy" should
emerge in the PRC. In 1996, 6,000 death sentences were promulgated, mostly in
show trials and rapid deterrent proceedings, of which at least 3,500 were
carried out. The CCP (still) regards the observance of human rights as an
internal matter of the People's Republic.
Deng Xiaoping died in February 1997; Jiang Zemin took over the political
legacy as his successor. The former British crown colony Hong Kong returned to
China after 100 years. Their autonomous status within China was retained. It is
a special administrative region. In December 1999, Macau returned to China from
Portugal. At the beginning of March 2000, China's leadership began to actively
fight corruption within its own ranks: a high-ranking official was executed for
bribery in Nanchang. Presumably the population should be pacified with it. In
2001, after 15 years of effort, China was admitted to the World Trade
Organization (WTO). This recording was another success for the modernization of
China. China's approval of Taiwan to join the WTO was a prerequisite for
admission. In the same year, the decision to award the 2008 Olympic Games to
China was made, which was received with great cheers in the country. A few
months before the start of the Olympics, unrest in Tibet overshadowed this great
Xi Jinping (born June 15, 1953 in Beijing) has been General Secretary of the
Communist Party of China, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and
President of the People's Republic since 2013.