Bulgaria is located in the east of the Balkans and borders Romania in the
north, Serbia and Macedonia in the west, Greece and Turkey in the south. The
capital of the country is Sofia with around 1.3 million residents.
The highest mountain in the country is the Musala in the Rila National Park,
which extends in the southwest of the country, at a height of 2,925 m. In
addition, Bulgaria has a total of three national parks, the Central Balkan
Mountains and the Pirin, as well as eleven nature parks and 55 nature reserves.
Around two thirds of Bulgaria consists of the lowlands formed by the Danube and
Mariza and their numerous tributaries. The country also has other partly
wonderful landscapes, for example with its coast on the Black Sea.
Bulgaria is also rich in cultural goods, aeological sites of the Thracians,
Romans and Byzantines, old monasteries and remnants of almost 500 years of
Politically, the country has orientated itself strongly towards the West in
recent years. After the socialist system collapsed in 1989, the government
embarked on a market economy course. Bulgaria became a member of NATO in 2004
and has been a member of the EU since January 1, 2007.
In addition to around 85% Bulgarians, around 9% Turks and 5% Roma live in the
country. According to the 1991 constitution, Orthodox Christianity is given
special prominence as the "Traditional Religion of Bulgaria".
|Name of the country
||Republic of Bulgaria/Republika B ă lgarija
|Form of government
||approx. 7.5 million (Credit:
||85% Bulgarians, 8% Turks, 5% Roma
and others like Russians or Romanians
||86% Orthodox Christians, 13% Muslims, 1% others
||Bulgarian and as a minority language Turkish
||Musala with a height of 2,925 m
||Danube with a length in the country of 470 km
||Burgaser Lake with an area of about 28 km²
|International license plate
||1 lev = 100 stotinki
|Time difference to CET
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||230 volts, 50 hertz
|Internet Top Level Domain (TLD)
Before the year 1000
After the end of the last Ice Age, people from the south and south-east
settled in what is now Finland about 9,000 years ago.
Abbreviationfinder website, in the 7th century BC BC Greek settlers settled on the Black
Sea coast and mixed with the Thracians living in Bulgarian territory. In the 2nd
century BC Chr. The Romans subjugated the country and made it up to its
demise in the 3rd century the Roman province. Since the 3rd
century the Goths and Huns invaded the area again and again. From the 5th
century, Slavic peoples settled in the region north of the Danube.
The first Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 founded after the
residents of the country had defeated Byzantium under ruler Asparuch. During
the 8th and 11th centuries there were repeated disputes with
Byzantium for supremacy in the Balkans. In 865, Tsar Boris was
baptized and introduced Christianity.
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
In 1018 Bulgaria was finally incorporated into the Byzantine
Empire. The Bulgarian Empire could not be restored until 1187. During
the 13th and 14th centuries there were repeated wars with
Byzantium and the Tatars. In the 14th century, the Ottomans
attacked Bulgaria and defeated the empire. From 1393 Bulgaria
became a Turkish province for almost 500 years.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
In the 18th century, numerous peasant uprisings made the
Bulgarian population's dissatisfaction with the Ottoman Empire clear. Resistance
to the Turkish occupation rose across the country. In 1876 the
so-called April Uprising took place, which was bloodily suppressed by the
Turkish troops. With the help of the Russians, Bulgaria achieved its
independence in 1877/78.
In the 20th and 21st centuries
In 1912 the allied Bulgarians, Serbs and Greeks jointly
waged the "First Balkan War" against Turkey. In 1913 the
"Second Balkan War" broke out. Bulgaria suffered a heavy defeat against its
former allies and Turkey.
At the beginning of the First World War Bulgaria first declared
its neutrality. In 1915, however, the country joined Germany
and Austria-Hungary. In 1918 Bulgaria declared its
surrender. After a coup in 1923, the government of an alliance
of bourgeois parties followed until 1931. Bulgaria initially
declared its neutrality during the Second World War, but then joined the
Tripartite Pact. In 1944 the Soviet Union declared war on
Bulgaria. The Red Army occupied the country and the Communist Party, with the
help of the Soviet Union, took over political power.
In 1946, following a referendum, the monarchy was replaced by
the people's democracy. At the end of the 1940s, extensive nationalization
measures were initiated and the Stalinist system was adopted. Until 1989, the
Communist Party under Todor Schivkov ruled the country without restrictions.
On November 10, 1989, Schivkov was overthrown. Between 1990 and 1997The
Socialist Party and the opposition parties took turns in government. The country
embarked on a market economy course, prices rose, but wages were not adjusted,
so that the majority of the population lived below the poverty line.
In 2000, accession negotiations were started between the EU
and Bulgaria, which led to a positive result. Bulgaria has been a member of the
EU since January 1st, 2007, and a member of NATO since 2004.