Bangladesh - One of the poorest countries
The South Asian country of Bangladesh is the largest delta region in the
world. More than 85% of the land consists of low alluvial plains. The
south-western part of the country consists of the Sunderban's mangrove forests,
which are a UNESCO World Heritage Site and where, for example, the
Bengal tiger finds its home.
The country is dominated by Muslims, around 83% of the population belongs
to Islam, which is reflected in the Bengali culture and in everyday life. The
predominantly Muslim East Bengal, i.e. today's Bangladesh, became part
of Pakistan as the "Province of East Pakistan" when the subcontinent became
independent from Great Britain. Pakistan and the province of East Pakistan were
separated from each other by approximately 2,000 km of Indian territory. On
March 26, 1971, the country made independent of Pakistan.
Numerous western companies have textiles manufactured in the desperately poor
country. The wages of the mostly female workers are miserable and the safety
conditions are pathetic. On April 24, 2013, a six-story factory building
collapsed, killing around 1,100 people.
|Name of the country
||People's Republic of Bangladesh
|Form of government
||Amar Sonar Bangla
||approx. 165 million (Credit:
||The majority of the population are Bengali. They are descended from
the Indo-Aryan immigrants. There are also around 250,000 Biharis and smaller peoples who mainly
live in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The four largest are the Chakma, Tipras, Mros and Mogh.
- Muslims approx. 90%,
- Hindus approx. 9%,
- Buddhists approx. 0.6%,
- Christians approx. 0.3%,
- Ismailis approx. 0.1%
||Bangla (Bengali) In addition, several tribal languages as minority languages
||Dhaka with an estimated 15 million residents
||Mount Keokradong, with a height of 1,230 m
||Brahmaputra, with a length of 2,900 km
|Largest lake in area
|International license plate
||1 taka = 100 poisha.
|Difference to CET
||+ 5 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||220/240 volts and 50 hertz
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
Until around the year 1000
In the 3rd century BC BC Maurya emperors ruled the Indian subcontinent. These
were replaced by Gupta emperors in the 4th century. The Islam ization of parts
of South Asia began around 712. An economic heyday Bengal among the Buddhist
From the year 1000 to the 17th century
Abbreviationfinder website, Mohammed Bakhtiar brought Bengal under the rule of the Sultanate of Delhi in
1199. Muslims from Central Asia came to Bengal. Cities and infrastructure
developed, culture flourished. Mughal emperors ruled the Indian subcontinent
from the 16th to the 18th centuries. In 1608 Dhaka became the provincial capital
of the Mughal Empire and Bengal opened up for international sea trade routes. In
the 17th century trade relations developed between the Indian subcontinent
and Portugal, France, the Netherlands and Great Britain.
In the 18th and 19th centuries
The British-East Indian trading company gained growing influence on the
Indian subcontinent in the 18th century. In 1740 the Mughal rule in Bengal came
to an end and power was taken over by the Nawab of Bengal. British supremacy on
the Indian subcontinent was confirmed with the victory of Great Britain over
France (Battle of Plessey) in 1757. In 1857 the first uprising of Indian
regiments against British rule took place.
20th century until today
The first division of the Bengal province by the British took place between
1905 and 1912. This division was viewed by many South Asians as a religious
division and thus contributed to the emergence of a separate Muslim independence
movement in South Asia (All India Muslim League). In 1947, British colonial rule
ended on the Indian subcontinent. The majority Muslim East Bengal became part of
the whole of Pakistan when the subcontinent became the province of East
Pakistan. Between West and East Pakistan there was about 2,000 km of Indian
Due to the political dominance of West Pakistan, tensions developed between the
two parts of the country between 1947 and 1970.
A language movement in East Pakistan against the introduction of Urdu, which is
foreign to Bengal, as the only language in Pakistan, became the nucleus of the
independence movement. The East Pakistani Awami League won the most seats in the
all- Pakistani parliament in the 1971 elections and provided the government for
all of Pakistan.
However, this was rejected by the West Pakistani leadership. After a brief,
bloody war of independence, Bangladesh gained independence on March 26, 1971
with Indian support. Under the charismatic leader of the Awami League, Sheikh
Mujibur Rahman, Bangladesh began its path from 1971 to 1975 as a secular,
parliamentary democracy with initially left-wing dirigist traits. On August 15,
1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his family were murdered.
Only two daughters who were in Germany at the time survived, including the
future Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina. Army chief Ziaur Rahman, who in 1971
proclaimed the independence of Bangladesh on behalf of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman,
prevailed in the following power struggles and led the country from 1975 until
his assassination on May 30, 1981.
Army chief Hussain Mohammed Ershad took over the office of president from
1982 to 1990 and developed an increasingly authoritarian regime. In 1990, after
ongoing mass demonstrations, he was overthrown by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's
daughter, Sheikh Hasina, and Ziaur Rahman's widow, Begum Khaleda Zia, who had
formed an alliance.
After a parliamentary-democratic system was restored, the BNP, led by Begum
Khaleda Zia, prevailed as the sole winner in the 1991 parliamentary
elections. Begum Khaleda Zia became Prime Minister.
The Awami League under Sheikh Hasina won the parliamentary elections in 1996.
Sheikh Hasina became Prime Minister. A four-party alliance led by the BNP won
the 2001 parliamentary elections. Begum Khaleda Zia was again prime minister.
In addition to the secular BNP and the Jatiya Party, the Jamaat-e-Islami and the
Islami Oikya Jote also include Islamic parties in the government for the first