Armenia - The first Christian country known to man
Armenia is a mountainous country on the south side of the Caucasus. It covers
about the northeast fifth of the former settlement area of the Armenians,
which was divided into Eastern Armenia and Western Armenia (Armenistan) in
1639. The latter belonged to Turkey, which had over a million of its Armenian
population deliberately exterminated in 1915/16. The Turkish government still
denies this genocide to this day. The former symbol of Armenia, Mount Ararat, is
also located on Turkish territory. It can be seen clearly from many parts of the
country, but the border with neighboring Turkey has been closed due to ongoing
Armenia is considered to be the first Christian country in the world because
it made Christianity the state religion in 301, 10 years earlier than Rome. The
well over 4,000 monuments are therefore mainly evidence of Christian art and
architecture, which were there in the 4th-11th centuries. Century found its
For once, a joke by the famous "Radio Yerevan" should be quoted:
Question to Radio Yerevan: "Is it true that the Comrade General Secretary
won a red car in the lottery?"
Radio Yerevan: "In principle, yes. But it wasn't Comrade General Secretary, it
was citizen Pyotr Petrovich. And it wasn't a car, but a bike. And he didn't win
it, it was stolen from him. But the bike was actually red. "
|Name of the country
||Republic of Armenia
|Form of government
||Armenia is located in the Caucasus, i.e. in the Middle East.
The country borders with Georgia, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Turkey.
||see political system
||approx. 3.3 million (Credit:
||approx. 97% Armenians, 1.3% Yazidi Kurds, 0.5% Russians.
In addition, Molocans and Arameans live in the country.
||about 95% belong to the Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
There is also a minority in the Armenian Catholic Church.
Molokans (Christians split off from the Russian Orthodox Church).
Jehovah's Witnesses and Yazidis in Armenia.
||The extinct volcano Aragaz with a height of 4,090 m
||Macaws (1,072 meters long)
|International license plate
||Dram = 100 luma
|Time difference to CET
||+ 3 h
|International phone code
|Mains voltage, frequency
||210/220 volts and 50 Hertz
(an adapter is recommended.)
|Internet TLD (Top Level Domain)
The early history of Armenia
The area in which today's Armenia stretches shows the first traces of
settlement as early as the 3rd millennium BC. Chr. On. Although this early
population was bound by a single culture, the landscape of the country prevented
the emergence of a larger political community. Not until the 13th century BC BC
and the enormous migration of the sea peoples, several smaller principalities
were established, which are historically known as the Nairi countries.
Abbreviationfinder website, the great power Assyria, which called these countries Uratri,
tried to force them to pay tribute. Under Aramu it came because
of the increasing threat from the Assyrians in the 9th century BC. Chr to unite
the Nairi countries to form the Kingdom of Urartu, which
should very quickly find a high level of economic prosperity. The capital of the
empire was the city of Tuspa (now Van). Urartu
reached its greatest extent under King Sarduri II, who lived
from about 765 to 733 BC. BC ruled, but was defeated by the Assyrians in the
fight for rule. Further battles with the Assyrians followed, which eventually
resulted in a destruction of the Urartean Empire by the Assyrian King
Sargon II (721-704 BC) ended. Despite attempts to revitalize the
empire, however, it slipped into insignificance and was around the year about
585 BC. Completely destroyed by the Scythians and Medes.
The formation of Armenia and the ancient times
The name "Armenia" was mentioned for the first time in the time of the Persians,
around 520 BC. Recent research has shown that the Armenians were either in the
7th or 6th century BC. Immigrated to Urartu, mixed up with the local population
and finally assumed their rule. According to Herodotus, they were under their
ruler Arame during immigration(Armenos) from Phrygia, which
also explains the name "Armenia". The Indo-European people built Urartu into a
new state that would later develop into Armenia. The earlier Urartu was founded
between 546 and 331 BC. Ruled by the Persians. These had ousted the Medes and
expanded their former domain into a first world empire. This extended from Asia
Minor to India and also included the province of Armenia, which at that time was
still divided into Eastern and Western Armenia.
After Alexander the Great in 334 BC Having started his
campaign against the Persians in the 3rd century BC and conquered the empire a
few years later, Armenia came under Hellenistic influence without having been
conquered. After the division of the Alexandrian Empire between the Diadochi, it
came into the interests of the Seleucids, whose empire included Persia,
Mesopotamia and parts of Asia Minor. But they were used by the Romans at the Battle
of Magnesia (188 BC) defeated, whereupon Artaxias proclaimed himself
king of Armenia. He founded the dynasty of the Artaxids, which in the coming
years could force the independence of Greater Armenia as an independent
kingdom. When the power of the new state increased to 55 BC. Moved to its
climax, Tigranes the Great was appointed "King of Kings", who, however, fell to
the Romans because of his alliance with Mithridates of Pontus to recognize Roman
sovereignty over Armenia.
Armenia as the first Christian country
After the Parthians had succeeded in placing representatives of their ruling
house (Arsacids) on the Armenian throne, the Sassanids were able to bring
Greater Armenia under their power between 252 and 297. However, at the end of
the 3rd century they had to give up their supremacy after they had been defeated
by the Roman emperor Diocletianus in 297/98. Trdat III followed. from the
Arsacid dynasty. This king made Christianity at a time when the great victory
of Constantine the Great against Maxentius at
the Milvian Bridge (Pons Milvius) in Rome was still
unthinkable301 on the state religion of Armenia. Armenia became the first
country in history to be united by a purely Christian religion.
In 387 the Great Armenian Empire was divided between Rome and the Sassanids. But
it was also the time in which the Armenians created an impressive Christian
culture, architecture and literature and received their own alphabet in 406
through Mesrop Mashtots. Christianity did not remain unchallenged. Under
Yazdegerd II, the Sassanids tried to introduce the teachings of Zarathustra in
Armenia, which in 451 resulted in a vehement rebellion among the residents of
the country. At the end of the following disputes, Christianity was
recognized by the Sassanids in 484.
Armenia in the Middle Ages
For Armenia, antiquity ended with the country being a main area of combat
between Byzantium and the Sassanids. The Byzantines had conquered most of
Greater Armenia by about 640, but by the 7th century the Arab tribes managed to
gain permanent control over the land. Meanwhile, Ashot I was able to
re-establish an Armenian kingdom around 885, which was recognized by the caliph,
but also by the basileus in Constantinople. Under Ashot II,who
ruled between 915 and 928, the freedom struggles of the Armenians were
successfully ended. The Armenian kingdom, however, went under in the second half
of the 11th century due to internal crises and lost wars, with the Byzantines
murdering the last ruler. However, the refugees from Armenia established the
independent principality of Lesser Armenia in Cilicia in 1080, which was to ally
itself with the Crusaders against Byzantium and Ottomans. After Lesser Armenia
fell to Cyprus in 1342 and later to the Egyptian Mamluks, it became part of the
Ottoman Empire for a very long time, in which the Armenian-speaking area was
combined as the province of Armenistan and given limited autonomy.
Armenia's Modern Era
With the beginning of the 19th century and the gradual collapse of the Ottoman
Empire, Armenia came more and more under the influence of Russia after the
seventh Russo-Turkish War(1828 to 1829) controlled the eastern
part of the country and other parts of Armenia after the ninth Russo-Turkish War
(1877 to 1878). However, the sovereignty of Armenia promised in the "Peace
Treaty of Sèvres" in 1920 was not realized because of the political movements in
the former Ottoman Empire, especially through the Mustafa Kemal Ataturks. The
nationalist Young Turkish movement around Talaat Pasha, which came to power in
1908, began in 1915 with the arrest and deportation of Armenian intellectuals in
Istanbul. This was the prelude to one of the blackest chapters in both
countries: the Armenian genocide.
This genocide was related to the Armenians' struggle for independence and
occurred between 1915 and 1917. Between 300,000 and 1.5 million Armenians were
killed in massacres and as a result of the death marches. Most Armenians still
see the genocide as an unpunished injustice, which they demand to be properly
remembered. The official Turkish point of view speaks against this, which
legitimizes the deportations as security measures required by the war and which
draws back heavily on the circumstances at that time as well as the attacks on
the Armenian side.
After being removed from the "Treaty of Sevres" by him under revision, "Treaty
of Lausanne" in favor of Turkey distance, divided in 1920 Turkey and the later
USSR Armenia among themselves - recorded in the 1921 Treaty of Kars. Eastern
Armenia became part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic in
1922 and a formally autonomous Union Republic of the USSR in 1936. This union
republic (= Armenian Socialist Soviet Republic) became an important location for
the chemical, shoe industry and computer science. Not only did many important
components for Soviet space travel come from it, which was to become a popular
tourist destination for Russians because of its pleasant climate. However, the
Armenian SSR was among others a haven for separatist movements within the Soviet
A devastating earthquake with a magnitude of 6.8 on the Richter scale struck the
Armenian region of Lori on December 7, 1988, killing around 25,000 people who
also died as a result of the winter and the inadequate measures taken by the
authorities. But for the first time in the history of the Soviet Union, foreign
aid workers were allowed into the country.
On September 21, 1991, the country declared its independence from the
Soviet Union, followed by the establishment of the Republic of Armenia. The
country's first president, Levon Ter-Petrosyan, was re-elected
in 1996, but forced to resign two years later. The reason for this was that in
the conflict with Nagorno-Karabakh he had pursued a policy that, in the opinion
of the population, was too willing to compromise. In 1994 Armenian troops
occupied about one sixth of Azerbaijan and no amicable solution to the conflict
was subsequently found. Levon Ter-Petrosjan's successor Robert Kocharyan1997
rejected a peace plan advocated by Levon Ter-Petrosyan and the Azerbaijani
government. In 1998 Kocharyan, until then President of the Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic, won the presidential elections. He was re-elected in 2003. After the
elections in February 2008, the former Prime Minister Serzh Sarkissyan took over
the presidency, following a policy similar to that of Robert Kocharyan. The
opposition under Levon Ter-Petrosyan did not recognize the
election result and reacted with demonstrations lasting several days, which led
to the declaration of a state of emergency.
The economy of Armenia is suffering not least from the closed borders with
Azerbaijan and Turkey. The country receives support above all from the
approximately 7 million Armenians living in the diaspora. The establishment of
diplomatic relations with Turkey has so far failed, among other things, because
the Turkish government insists that the charge of genocide during the Ottoman
Empire be withdrawn and that Armenia formally renounce any form of reparations.